Share schedule and task details with a Visio Gantt chart

Share schedule and task details with a Visio Gantt chart

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A Gantt chart helps you schedule your project tasks and then helps you track your progress. To communicate detailed task and schedule information to managers or other team members, you can create a Gantt chart in Microsoft Visio. You can also use a Gantt chart to manage the project's schedule at the task level.

Set up a Gantt chart

  1. In the Categories list, click the Schedule category.

  2. 按一下 [甘特圖],然後按一下 [建立]

  3. [甘特圖選項] 對話方塊中,設定時幅的日期:

    • 按一下 [日期] 索引標籤,然後選擇所要選項。
      [主要單位] 是指要在圖表中使用的最長時間單位 (例如年或月),[次要單位] 則是最短的時間單位 (例如日或小時)。

    • [格式] 索引標籤上,按一下要用於工作長條圖、里程碑及摘要列上的圖形及標籤,然後按一下 [確定]
      如果不知道要選擇哪一種格式,請直接接受預設選項。您可以於稍後變更格式。

新增資料到甘特圖

工作

甘特圖內的每項工作在圖框架中會各成一列。當您在 [工作名稱] 欄中的儲存格輸入工作名稱時,工作期間會在時幅下方區域顯示為工作列。

目標

採取的動作

變更工作名稱

  • 按一下 [工作名稱] 資料欄中內含工作的儲存格,然後輸入新名稱。

設定或變更工作期間

  • 按一下甘特圖框架中內含要變更日期或期間的儲存格,然後輸入新的資訊。

請輸入如下的期間:

  • 1h for 1 hour

  • 1d for 1 day

  • 1w for 1 week

  • 1m for 1 month

新增新的工作列

  • [圖形] 視窗拖曳一個 [列] 圖形,並置放在要新增列的圖表位置。

新增工作的完成百分比指示器

  1. 選取要顯示完成百分比資料欄的位置左邊的資料欄。

  2. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [欄] 群組中,按一下 [插入]

  3. [資料欄類型] 底下,按一下 [完成百分比],然後按一下 [確定]

根據您的工作進度,在新資料欄中輸入工作完成的百分比。完成百分比指示器會出現在工作列中。

刪除工作

  • 在代表所要刪除之工作的資料列中,選取任意儲存格,然後在 [甘特圖] 索引標籤上的 [工作] 群組中,按一下 [刪除]

里程碑

因為里程碑代表的不是工作,而是排程中的重要事件,請將里程碑的期間設為 0。

目標

採取的動作

新增里程碑

  1. [圖形] 視窗拖曳 [里程碑] 圖形,並置放於要新增里程碑列的圖表位置。

  2. 在代表里程碑的資料列中,以滑鼠右鍵按一下 [開始] 資料欄中的儲存格,然後按一下捷徑功能表上的 [編輯日期]

  3. 設定日期,然後按一下 [確定][完成] 資料欄中的日期會變更為與 [開始] 資料欄中的日期一致,並且 [期間] 會設定為零 (0)。

將現有工作轉換成里程碑

  • Type a duration of zero (0) in the Duration column of the row representing the task that you want to convert to a milestone.

變更里程碑標記的外觀

  • 以滑鼠右鍵按一下里程碑標記,然後按一下捷徑功能表上的 [工作選項]。變更所要的選項,然後按一下 [確定]

刪除里程碑

  • 在代表所要刪除之里程碑的資料列中,選取任意儲存格,然後在 [甘特圖] 索引標籤上的 [工作] 群組中,按一下 [刪除]

摘要工作

當您想將數個從屬工作合併到一個工作網下時,可使用摘要工作。

目標

採取的動作

在摘要工作底下建立從屬工作

摘要工作是一個標準工作列。其中會摘要列出底下以縮排顯示的從屬工作。若要建立從屬工作:

  1. 選取包含工作名稱的儲存格。若要選取多個工作,請在按一下儲存格時按住 SHIFT。

  2. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [工作] 群組中,按一下 [縮排]

縮排工作現在變成從屬於上方的摘要工作。

設定摘要工作的期間

  1. 請在第一個從屬工作資料列中,按一下 [開始] 資料欄的儲存格,然後輸入此工作的開始日期。

  2. 針對相同從屬工作,按一下 [完成] 資料欄的儲存格,然後輸入工作的結束日期。

  3. 請為每項從屬工作重複步驟 1 和 2。

新增所有從屬工作的工作期間資訊後,摘要工作期間就會自動填入。

升階 (凸排) 工作

  • 以滑鼠右鍵按一下要升階的工作名稱,然後按一下捷徑功能表上的 [凸排]

變更摘要工作長條圖的外觀

  1. 以滑鼠右鍵按一下要變更的摘要工作長條圖,然後按一下捷徑功能表上的 [工作選項]

  2. [摘要列] 底下,選取所要的長條圖開始及結束符號,然後按一下 [確定]

相依性 (連結的工作)

當您在甘特圖中設定一項工作與另一項相依時,會有一個箭頭連接兩個工作列。如果您變更的工作日期或期間是另一項工作所相依的項目時,則相依的工作日期也會跟著變更。

目標

採取的動作

設定工作之間的相依性

  1. 選取要連結的工作與里程碑的名稱儲存格。若要選取多個工作,請在選取工作時按住 Ctrl。

  2. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [工作] 群組中,按一下 [連結]

解除工作之間的相依性

  1. 按一下內含工作名稱的儲存格,以選取要解除其相依性的工作。若要選取多個工作,請在選取工作時按住 Ctrl。

  2. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [工作] 群組中,按一下 [取消連結]

變更相依箭頭的樣式

  • 在甘特圖開啟時,以滑鼠右鍵按一下繪圖頁面,然後按一下 [S 類型連接器]

新增欄:

目標

採取的動作

重新命名現有的資料欄

  • 按一下要重新命名的資料欄標題,然後輸入新名稱。

新增預先設計的資料欄

  1. 選取要顯示新資料欄的位置左邊的資料欄標題。

  2. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [欄] 群組中,按一下 [插入]

  3. [資料欄類型] 清單中,按一下對應於要新增之資料類型的資料欄名稱,然後按一下 [確定]

新增自己設計的資料欄

  1. 選取要顯示新資料欄的位置左邊的資料欄標題。

  2. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [欄] 群組中,按一下 [插入]

  3. [資料欄類型] 清單中,按一下對應於資料所屬格式的其中一項使用者定義的資料欄 (例如 [使用者定義十進位][使用者定義文字][使用者定義時間]),然後按一下 [確定]

  4. 為該資料欄輸入新名稱。

附註: 若要新增多個文字資料欄,每次都要選擇不同的使用者定義文字選項。例如,新增第一個資料欄時,按一下 [使用者定義文字 1];新增第二個資料欄時,按一下 [使用者定義文字 2],依此類推。

刪除 (隱藏) 資料欄

  • 選取要刪除 (隱藏) 之資料欄的標題。

  • [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [欄] 群組中,按一下 [隱藏]

附註: 當您從圖表中刪除或隱藏資料欄時,該欄的資料會保存在某個檔案中。若要稍後再次顯示這個資料欄,請以滑鼠右鍵按一下某個資料欄標題,然後按一下 [插入資料欄]。從清單中,選取要再次顯示的資料欄,然後按一下 [確定]

移動資料欄

  1. 按一下要移動的資料欄標題。

  2. 將資料欄拖曳至新位置。

  3. 請執行下列其中一項操作:

    • 若要將資料欄移至另一個資料欄的左邊,請將要移動的資料欄中點放置在另一個資料欄中點的左邊。

    • 若要將資料欄移至另一個資料欄的右邊,請將要移動的資料欄中點放置在另一個資料欄中點的右邊。

    • 若要將資料欄移至時幅區域的右邊,請將要移動的資料欄中點放置在時幅區域中點的右邊。

時幅

時幅是一種主要及次要時間單位的刻度,範圍從專案開始日期到結束日期為止。您可以定義時幅的時間單位、開始及結束日期,以及自訂的非工作日。

目標

採取的動作

變更開始及 (或) 結束日期

  1. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [管理] 群組中,按一下 [圖表選項]

  2. [甘特圖選項] 對話方塊的 [時幅範圍] 底下,設定日期範圍。

變更時間單位

  1. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [管理] 群組中,按一下 [圖表選項]

  2. [甘特圖選項] 對話方塊的 [時間單位] 底下,選取所要的 [主要單位][次要單位],然後按一下 [確定]

設定非工作日

  1. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [管理] 群組中,按一下 [設定工作時間]

  2. [設定工作時間] 對話方塊中,選取所要的 [工作日][工作時間] 選項,然後按一下 [確定]

捲動到特定工作或里程碑

  1. 按一下內含工作名稱的儲存格,以選取要捲動到的工作或里程碑。

  2. [甘特圖] 索引標籤的 [導覽] 群組中,按一下 [捲動到工作]

捲動到特定日期

  • To scroll to the end of the timescale, on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Navigation group, click Go to Finish.

  • To scroll one minor unit to the left, on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Navigation group, click Next.

  • To scroll one minor unit to the right, on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Navigation group, click Previous.

  • To scroll to the beginning of the timescale, on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Navigation group, click Go to Start.

變更時幅區域的寬度

  1. 選取時幅資料欄。

  2. 以任意方向拖曳資料欄右邊的選取控點,直到符合所要寬度。

顯示更多時間單位

  1. 按一下甘特圖框架周圍的實線以選取框架。

  2. 往右邊的方向,拖曳框架右方中央的選取控點。

附註: 在您擴充時幅以顯示更多時間單位時,也會變更與您專案相關的結束日期。

您想要做什麼?

Use a Gantt chart as a communication tool

Set up a Gantt chart

Add data to a Gantt chart

Print a large Gantt chart

Use a Gantt chart as a communication tool

In a Gantt chart, graphical elements such as bars and arrows represent tasks and the dependencies between them so you can track how the changes in one task affect the others.

You can also group several subordinate tasks under one summary task and add descriptions, required resources, and completion percentages to each task.

Tasks are displayed as bars on a timescale.

包含工作列的甘特圖

You can quickly produce a visually appealing annotated schedule for a presentation by applying a color scheme and adding text labels to a Gantt chart.

If you start a schedule for a complex project as a Visio Gantt chart, you can easily export the schedule data to Microsoft Project 2010, and then use Project to plan and manage the project in detail.

Product

Use when

Visio

  • You want to prepare a visually appealing annotated schedule for a presentation.

  • You want to define the basic tasks in a schedule in the early stages of a project.

  • Your schedule includes fewer than 30 tasks.

Project

  • You want to use a full-featured project management tool for planning and scheduling a project.

  • Your schedule includes dozens of tasks.

  • You need to assign multiple resources to tasks or connect schedules for different projects.

Top of Page

Set up a Gantt chart

  1. 按一下 [檔案] 索引標籤上的 [新增]。

  2. Under Choose a Template, click Schedule, and then double-click Gantt Chart.

  3. In the Gantt Chart Options dialog box, set up the dates for the timescale. You can also choose how you want to format the task bars, milestones, and other chart elements:

    • Click the Date tab, and then choose the options that you want.

      附註: Major units are the longest unit of time (such as years or months) that you want to use in the chart, and Minor units are the smallest (such as days or hours).

    • On the Format tab, click the shapes and labels that you want to use on the task bars, milestones, and summary bars, and then click OK.
      [甘特圖選項] 對話方塊

附註:  If you aren't sure what formatting to choose, just accept the default choices. You can change the formatting later.

A chart frame up close

After you set up a Gantt chart, a generic chart frame appears.

The frame is like a blank canvas on which you can paint the details of your schedule:

  • In the Task Name column, click a cell, and then type to replace the generic text with a specific task name. You can add more tasks as your project progresses.

  • Initially, the dates in the Start and Finish columns reflect the start date that you specified for the project. To change the date, click a cell, and then type.

  • The Duration column updates automatically as you type new start and finish dates. You can also type one of the dates and the duration to indicate the length of a task.

  • In the Timescale (the area labeled 2000 with months shown below), Major units are on top, and Minor units are on the bottom. The timescale starts and ends with the start and finish dates that you specified. As you add task start and end dates or durations, task bars appear in the area below the timescale, and the area expands.

提示: To record additional data about each task, you can add more columns. For example, you can add a Resource column so your Gantt chart reflects who is responsible for each task.

Top of Page

新增資料到甘特圖

You can fill the frame with data that reflects the details of your project schedule. You can add and refine the following schedule elements:

Tasks

Milestones

Summary tasks

Dependencies (Linked tasks)

Data columns

Timescale

工作

包含工作列的甘特圖

甘特圖內的每項工作在圖框架中會各成一列。當您在 [工作名稱] 欄中的儲存格輸入工作名稱時,工作期間會在時幅下方區域顯示為工作列。

目標

採取的動作

變更工作名稱

  • 按一下 [工作名稱] 資料欄中內含工作的儲存格,然後輸入新名稱。

設定或變更工作期間

  • 按一下甘特圖框架中內含要變更日期或期間的儲存格,然後輸入新的資訊。

附註: 請輸入如下的期間:

  • 1h for 1 hour

  • 1d for 1 day

  • 1w for 1 week

  • 1m for 1 month

Add new tasks at the bottom of the Gantt chart

  • Select the Gantt chart frame by clicking the solid line that surrounds the chart. To create a new task row, on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Tasks group, click New.
    [工作] 群組

Add a new task between two existing tasks

  • Select any cell in the row that you want a new task row to appear above, and then on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Tasks group, click New.
    [工作] 群組

新增工作的完成百分比指示器

  1. Select the shaded portion at the top of the column to the left of where you want a percent complete column to appear, and then on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Columns group, click Insert.
    [欄] 群組

  2. [資料欄類型] 底下,按一下 [完成百分比],然後按一下 [確定]

  3. 根據您的工作進度,在新資料欄中輸入工作完成的百分比。完成百分比指示器會出現在工作列中。

刪除工作

  • Select any cell in the row that represents the task you want to delete, and then on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Tasks group, click Delete.
    [工作] 群組

里程碑

甘特圖中的里程碑

因為里程碑代表的不是工作,而是排程中的重要事件,請將里程碑的期間設為 0。

目標

採取的動作

新增里程碑

  1. Drag a Milestone shape from the Gantt Chart Shapes stencil onto the Gantt chart frame, and drop it between the cells containing the task names for the tasks that you want the milestone to follow and precede.

  2. 在代表里程碑的資料列中,以滑鼠右鍵按一下 [開始] 資料欄中的儲存格,然後按一下捷徑功能表上的 [編輯日期]

  3. Type the date that you want, and then click OK. The date in the Finish column changes to match the date in the Start column, and the Duration is set to zero (0).

將現有工作轉換成里程碑

  • Type a duration of zero (0) in the Duration column of the row representing the task that you want to convert to a milestone.

變更里程碑標記的外觀

  • 以滑鼠右鍵按一下里程碑標記,然後按一下捷徑功能表上的 [工作選項]。變更所要的選項,然後按一下 [確定]

刪除里程碑

  • Select any cell in the row that represents the milestone that you want to delete, and then on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Tasks group, click Delete.
    [工作] 群組

摘要工作

有摘要和附屬工作的甘特圖

當您想將數個從屬工作合併到一個工作網下時,可使用摘要工作。

目標

採取的動作

Create a summary task with subordinate tasks

  1. Add a summary task and subordinate tasks or milestones to the Gantt chart.

  2. To select a subordinate task, select a cell containing the task name. To select multiple tasks, hold down SHIFT while you click.

  3. On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Tasks group, click Indent.
    [工作] 群組

設定摘要工作的期間

  1. 請在第一個從屬工作資料列中,按一下 [開始] 資料欄的儲存格,然後輸入此工作的開始日期。

  2. 針對相同從屬工作,按一下 [完成] 資料欄的儲存格,然後輸入工作的結束日期。

  3. 請為每項從屬工作重複步驟 1 和 2。

附註: 新增所有從屬工作的工作期間資訊後,摘要工作期間就會自動填入。

Demote (Indent) a task

  • Select the name of the task that you want to demote, and then on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Tasks group, click Indent.
    [工作] 群組

升階 (凸排) 工作

  • Right-click the name of the task that you want to promote, and then on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Tasks group, click Oudent.
    [工作] 群組

變更摘要工作長條圖的外觀

  1. Right-click the task bar of a summary task that you want to change, and then click Task Options on the shortcut menu.

  2. [摘要列] 底下,選取所要的長條圖開始及結束符號,然後按一下 [確定]

相依性 (連結的工作)

甘特圖中的里程碑

當您在甘特圖中設定一項工作與另一項相依時,會有一個箭頭連接兩個工作列。如果您變更的工作日期或期間是另一項工作所相依的項目時,則相依的工作日期也會跟著變更。

目標

採取的動作

設定工作之間的相依性

  1. Select the tasks and milestones between which you want to set dependencies by clicking in the cells containing the task names. To select multiple tasks, hold down SHIFT while you select.

  2. On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Tasks group, click Link.
    [工作] 群組

解除工作之間的相依性

  1. Select the tasks with dependencies that you want to break by clicking in the cells containing the task names. To select multiple tasks, hold down SHIFT while you select.

  2. On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Tasks group, click Unlink.
    [工作] 群組

變更相依箭頭的樣式

  • 在甘特圖開啟時,以滑鼠右鍵按一下繪圖頁面,然後按一下 [S 類型連接器]

Data columns

A project schedule is built from task-specific data. The accumulation of task start dates and durations determines the finish date for the project. In a Visio Gantt chart, you store task data in data columns.

If you want to record and display additional task data in a Gantt chart, you can add new columns. For example, you may want to add a column for task notes in which you can describe complex or unique tasks, a column for resources to list the people responsible for completing each task, or a column for percent complete to track what percentage of each task is completed.


包含工作列的甘特圖

By default, when you create a new Gantt chart, the chart contains Task Name, Start, Finish, and Duration columns. You can rearrange the existing columns, add new columns, and delete columns that you no longer need.

目標

採取的動作

重新命名現有的資料欄

  • 按一下要重新命名的資料欄標題,然後輸入新名稱。

新增預先設計的資料欄

  1. 選取要顯示新資料欄的位置左邊的資料欄標題。

  2. On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Columns group, click Insert.
    [欄] 群組

  3. [資料欄類型] 清單中,按一下對應於要新增之資料類型的資料欄名稱,然後按一下 [確定]

新增自己設計的資料欄

  1. 選取要顯示新資料欄的位置左邊的資料欄標題。

  2. On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Columns group, click Insert.
    [欄] 群組

  3. [資料欄類型] 清單中,按一下對應於資料所屬格式的其中一項使用者定義的資料欄 (例如 [使用者定義十進位][使用者定義文字][使用者定義時間]),然後按一下 [確定]

  4. 為該資料欄輸入新名稱。

附註: 若要新增多個文字資料欄,每次都要選擇不同的使用者定義文字選項。例如,新增第一個資料欄時,按一下 [使用者定義文字 1];新增第二個資料欄時,按一下 [使用者定義文字 2],依此類推。

刪除 (隱藏) 資料欄

  • 選取要刪除 (隱藏) 之資料欄的標題。

  • On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Columns group, click Hide.
    [欄] 群組

附註: 當您從圖表中刪除或隱藏資料欄時,該欄的資料會保存在某個檔案中。若要稍後再次顯示這個資料欄,請以滑鼠右鍵按一下某個資料欄標題,然後按一下 [插入資料欄]。從清單中,選取要再次顯示的資料欄,然後按一下 [確定]

移動資料欄

  1. 按一下要移動的資料欄標題。

  2. 將資料欄拖曳至新位置。

  3. 請執行下列其中一項操作:

    • 若要將資料欄移至另一個資料欄的左邊,請將要移動的資料欄中點放置在另一個資料欄中點的左邊。

    • 若要將資料欄移至另一個資料欄的右邊,請將要移動的資料欄中點放置在另一個資料欄中點的右邊。

    • 若要將資料欄移至時幅區域的右邊,請將要移動的資料欄中點放置在時幅區域中點的右邊。

附註: If the timescale region is long, you may have to zoom out to move the column past the region's midpoint. To zoom out, on the View menu, point to Zoom, and then click the zoom level that you want.

時幅

時幅是一種主要及次要時間單位的刻度,範圍從專案開始日期到結束日期為止。您可以定義時幅的時間單位、開始及結束日期,以及自訂的非工作日。

包含工作列的甘特圖

You can scroll to a particular date or task on the timescale, and you can change the width of the timescale region and display more dates.

目標

採取的動作

變更開始及 (或) 結束日期

  1. On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Manage group, click Chart Options.
    [管理] 群組

  2. In the Gantt Chart Options dialog box, under Timescale range, change the click the date that you want to change.

變更時間單位

  1. On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Manage group, click Chart Options.
    [管理] 群組

  2. [甘特圖選項] 對話方塊的 [時間單位] 底下,選取所要的 [主要單位][次要單位],然後按一下 [確定]

設定非工作日

  1. On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Manage group, click Configure Working Time.
    [管理] 群組

  2. [設定工作時間] 對話方塊中,選取所要的 [工作日][工作時間] 選項,然後按一下 [確定]

捲動到特定工作或里程碑

  1. 按一下內含工作名稱的儲存格,以選取要捲動到的工作或里程碑。

  2. On the Gantt Chart tab, in the Navigation group, click Scroll To Task.
    [導覽] 群組

捲動到特定日期

  • To scroll to the end of the timescale, on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Navigation group, click Go to Finish.

  • To scroll one minor unit to the left, on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Navigation group, click Next.

  • To scroll one minor unit to the right, on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Navigation group, click Previous.

  • To scroll to the beginning of the timescale, on the Gantt Chart tab, in the Navigation group, click Go to Start.
    [導覽] 群組

變更時幅區域的寬度

  1. Click once in the gray area at the top of the timescale region, and then click again to select the timescale column.

  2. Drag the blue selection handle on the right side of the column in either direction until the region is the width that you want.

顯示更多時間單位

  1. 按一下甘特圖框架周圍的實線以選取框架。

  2. Drag the blue selection handle at the right-center of the frame toward the right.

附註: 在您擴充時幅以顯示更多時間單位時,也會變更與您專案相關的結束日期。

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Print a large Gantt chart

Unless you are creating a schedule for a small project, your Gantt chart is likely to extend beyond the boundaries of one standard printer page. The following table describes some printing problems that you may encounter and steps that you can take before you print that will help you get the results that you expect.

Problem

Solution

採取的動作

Only part of the Gantt chart is printed.

Make sure the whole chart fits on a drawing page.

  1. On the Design tab, in the Page Setup group, click Page Setup dialog box launcher.

  2. In the Page Setup dialog box, click the Page Size tab, under Print zoom, select Fit to.

  3. Next to Fit to, type “1” in the sheet(s) across box and type “1” in the sheet(s) down box.

  4. 按一下 [套用],然後按一下 [確定]

The printed page and drawing page orientations are not the same.

Change the printer page orientation.

  • On the Design tab, in the Page Setup group, click Orientation, and then click the orientation that you want.

You don't know how many pages the chart will be printed across.

Preview how the drawing will be printed before you print it.

  • On the File tab, click Print, and then click Print Preview.

You don't know where the page breaks will occur.

Turn on page breaks to see how many pages the chart will tile across.

  • On the View tab, in the Show group, select Page Breaks. Gray lines on the chart indicate where the page breaks will occur.

The breaks between the printed pages occur at awkward positions.

Change the margin settings to control the overlap between pages. The larger the margins, the larger the overlap between pages.

  1. On the Design tab, in the Page Setup group, click Page Setup dialog box launcher.

  2. On the Print Setup tab, under Printer paper, click Setup.

  3. Type the margin settings that you want, and then click OK two times.

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您想要做什麼?

Use a Gantt chart as a communication tool

Set up a Gantt chart

Add data to a Gantt chart

Print a large Gantt chart

Use a Gantt chart as a communication tool

In a Gantt chart, graphical elements such as bars and arrows represent tasks and the dependencies between them so you can track how the changes in one task affect the others.

You can also group several subordinate tasks under one summary task and add descriptions, required resources, and completion percentages to each task.

Tasks are displayed as bars on a timescale.

甘特圖範例

You can quickly produce a visually appealing annotated schedule for a presentation by applying a color scheme and adding text labels to a Gantt chart.

If you start a schedule for a complex project as a Visio Gantt chart, you can easily export the schedule data to Microsoft Office Project, and then use Office Project to plan and manage the project in detail. For more information about exporting Gantt charts from Office Visio, see Help in Microsoft Office Visio.

Product

Use when

Office Visio

  • You want to prepare a visually appealing annotated schedule for a presentation.

  • You want to define the basic tasks in a schedule in the early stages of a project.

  • Your schedule includes fewer than 30 tasks.

Office Project

  • You want to use a full-featured project management tool for planning and scheduling a project.

  • Your schedule includes dozens of tasks.

  • You need to assign multiple resources to tasks or connect schedules for different projects.

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Set up a Gantt chart

First set up the basic chart frame and the dates for the timescale. You can also choose how you want to format the task bars, milestones, and other chart elements.

Later you can change the dates, add or delete tasks and milestones, and create dependencies between tasks. You can also apply a color scheme and add a title and legend.

  1. In Visio, on the File menu, point to New, point to Schedule, and then click Gantt Chart.

  2. Click the Date tab, and then choose the options that you want.

    Major units are the longest unit of time (such as years or months) that you want to use in the chart, and Minor units are the smallest (such as days or hours).

  3. On the Format tab, click the shapes and labels that you want to use on the task bars, milestones, and summary bars, and then click OK.

If you aren't sure what formatting to choose, just accept the default choices. You can change the formatting later.

A chart frame up close

After you set up a Gantt chart, a generic chart frame appears.

The frame is like a blank canvas on which you can paint the details of your schedule:

  • In the Task Name column, click a cell, and then type to replace the generic text with a specific task name. You can add more tasks as your project progresses.

  • Initially, the dates in the Start and Finish columns reflect the start date that you specified for the project. To change the date, click a cell, and then type.

  • The Duration column updates automatically as you type new start and finish dates. You can also type one of the dates and the duration to indicate the length of a task.

  • In the Timescale (the area labeled 2000 with months shown below), Major units are on top, and Minor units are on the bottom. The timescale starts and ends with the start and finish dates that you specified. As you add task start and end dates or durations, task bars appear in the area below the timescale, and the area expands.

To record additional data about each task, you can add more columns. For example, you can add a Resource column so your Gantt chart reflects who is responsible for each task.

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新增資料到甘特圖

You can fill the frame with data that reflects the details of your project schedule. You can add and refine the following schedule elements:

Tasks

Milestones

Summary tasks

Dependencies (Linked tasks)

Data columns

Timescale

工作

包含工作列的甘特圖

甘特圖內的每項工作在圖框架中會各成一列。當您在 [工作名稱] 欄中的儲存格輸入工作名稱時,工作期間會在時幅下方區域顯示為工作列。

目標

採取的動作

變更工作名稱

  • 按一下 [工作名稱] 資料欄中內含工作的儲存格,然後輸入新名稱。

設定或變更工作期間

  • 按一下甘特圖框架中內含要變更日期或期間的儲存格,然後輸入新的資訊。

請輸入如下的期間:

  • 1h for 1 hour

  • 1d for 1 day

  • 1w for 1 week

  • 1m for 1 month

Add new tasks at the bottom of the Gantt chart

  • Select the Gantt chart frame by clicking the solid line that surrounds the chart. To create new task rows, drag the green selection handle at the lower center of the frame.

Add a new task between two existing tasks

  • Right-click any cell in the row that you want a new task row to appear above, and then click New Task on the shortcut menu.

新增工作的完成百分比指示器

  1. Right-click the shaded portion at the top of the column to the left of where you want a percent complete column to appear, and then click Insert Column on the shortcut menu.

  2. [資料欄類型] 底下,按一下 [完成百分比],然後按一下 [確定]

  3. 根據您的工作進度,在新資料欄中輸入工作完成的百分比。完成百分比指示器會出現在工作列中。

刪除工作

  • Right-click any cell in the row that represents the task you want to delete, and then click Delete Task on the shortcut menu.

Change the way a task bar looks

  • Right-click the task bar, and then click Task Options on the shortcut menu. From the list, click the options you want, and then click OK.

里程碑

甘特圖中的里程碑

因為里程碑代表的不是工作,而是排程中的重要事件,請將里程碑的期間設為 0。

目標

採取的動作

新增里程碑

  1. Drag a Milestone shape from the Gantt Chart Shapes stencil onto the Gantt chart frame, and drop it between the cells containing the task names for the tasks that you want the milestone to follow and precede.

  2. 在代表里程碑的資料列中,以滑鼠右鍵按一下 [開始] 資料欄中的儲存格,然後按一下捷徑功能表上的 [編輯日期]

  3. Type the date that you want, and then click OK. The date in the Finish column changes to match the date in the Start column, and the Duration is set to zero (0).

將現有工作轉換成里程碑

  • Type a duration of zero (0) in the Duration column of the row representing the task that you want to convert to a milestone.

變更里程碑標記的外觀

  • 以滑鼠右鍵按一下里程碑標記,然後按一下捷徑功能表上的 [工作選項]。變更所要的選項,然後按一下 [確定]

刪除里程碑

  • Right-click any cell in the row that represents the milestone that you want to delete, and then click Delete Task on the shortcut menu.

摘要工作

有摘要和附屬工作的甘特圖

當您想將數個從屬工作合併到一個工作網下時,可使用摘要工作。

目標

採取的動作

Create a summary task with subordinate tasks

  1. Add a summary task and subordinate tasks or milestones to the Gantt chart.

  2. To select a subordinate task, click a cell containing the task name. To select multiple tasks, hold down SHIFT while you click.

  3. Right-click one of the selected tasks, and then click Indent on the shortcut menu.

設定摘要工作的期間

  1. 請在第一個從屬工作資料列中,按一下 [開始] 資料欄的儲存格,然後輸入此工作的開始日期。

  2. 針對相同從屬工作,按一下 [完成] 資料欄的儲存格,然後輸入工作的結束日期。

  3. 請為每項從屬工作重複步驟 1 和 2。

新增所有從屬工作的工作期間資訊後,摘要工作期間就會自動填入。

Demote (Indent) a task

  • Right-click the name of the task that you want to demote, and then click Indent on the shortcut menu.

升階 (凸排) 工作

  • Right-click the name of the task that you want to promote, and then click Outdent on the shortcut menu.

變更摘要工作長條圖的外觀

  1. Right-click the task bar of a summary task that you want to change, and then click Task Options on the shortcut menu.

  2. [摘要列] 底下,選取所要的長條圖開始及結束符號,然後按一下 [確定]

相依性 (連結的工作)

甘特圖中的里程碑

當您在甘特圖中設定一項工作與另一項相依時,會有一個箭頭連接兩個工作列。如果您變更的工作日期或期間是另一項工作所相依的項目時,則相依的工作日期也會跟著變更。

目標

採取的動作

設定工作之間的相依性

  1. Select the tasks and milestones between which you want to set dependencies by clicking in the cells containing the task names. To select multiple tasks, hold down SHIFT while you select.

  2. Right-click one of the selected tasks, and then click Link Tasks on the shortcut menu.

解除工作之間的相依性

  1. Select the tasks with dependencies that you want to break by clicking in the cells containing the task names. To select multiple tasks, hold down SHIFT while you select.

  2. Right-click one of the selected tasks, and then click Unlink Tasks on the shortcut menu.

變更相依箭頭的樣式

  • With the Gantt chart open, right-click the drawing page, and then click S Type Connectors on the shortcut menu.

Data columns

A project schedule is built from task-specific data. The accumulation of task start dates and durations determines the finish date for the project. In a Visio Gantt chart, you store task data in data columns.

If you want to record and display additional task data in a Gantt chart, you can add new columns. For example, you may want to add a column for task notes in which you can describe complex or unique tasks, a column for resources to list the people responsible for completing each task, or a column for percent complete to track what percentage of each task has been completed.


包含工作列的甘特圖

By default, when you create a new Gantt chart, the chart contains Task Name, Start, Finish, and Duration columns. You can rearrange the existing columns, add new ones, and delete columns you no longer need.

目標

採取的動作

重新命名現有的資料欄

  • 按一下要重新命名的資料欄標題,然後輸入新名稱。

新增預先設計的資料欄

  1. Right-click the heading of the column to the left of where you want the new column to appear, and then click Insert Column on the shortcut menu.

  2. [資料欄類型] 清單中,按一下對應於要新增之資料類型的資料欄名稱,然後按一下 [確定]

新增自己設計的資料欄

  1. Right-click the heading of the column to the left of where you want the new column to appear, and then Click Insert Column on the shortcut menu.

  2. [資料欄類型] 清單中,按一下對應於資料所屬格式的其中一項使用者定義的資料欄 (例如 [使用者定義十進位][使用者定義文字][使用者定義時間]),然後按一下 [確定]

  3. 為該資料欄輸入新名稱。

附註: 若要新增多個文字資料欄,每次都要選擇不同的使用者定義文字選項。例如,新增第一個資料欄時,按一下 [使用者定義文字 1];新增第二個資料欄時,按一下 [使用者定義文字 2],依此類推。

刪除 (隱藏) 資料欄

  • Right-click the heading of the column that you want to delete (hide), and then click Hide Column on the shortcut menu.

附註:  When you delete, or hide, a column from the chart, the data from the column is preserved in a file. To show the column again later, right-click a column heading, and then click Insert Column on the shortcut menu. From the list, select the column that you want to show again, and then click OK.

移動資料欄

  1. 按一下要移動的資料欄標題。

  2. 將資料欄拖曳至新位置。

  3. 請執行下列其中一項操作:

    • 若要將資料欄移至另一個資料欄的左邊,請將要移動的資料欄中點放置在另一個資料欄中點的左邊。

    • 若要將資料欄移至另一個資料欄的右邊,請將要移動的資料欄中點放置在另一個資料欄中點的右邊。

    • 若要將資料欄移至時幅區域的右邊,請將要移動的資料欄中點放置在時幅區域中點的右邊。

附註: If the timescale region is long, you may have to zoom out to move the column past the region's midpoint. To zoom out, on the View menu, point to Zoom, and then click the zoom level that you want.

時幅

時幅是一種主要及次要時間單位的刻度,範圍從專案開始日期到結束日期為止。您可以定義時幅的時間單位、開始及結束日期,以及自訂的非工作日。

包含工作列的甘特圖

You can scroll to a particular date or task on the timescale, and you can change the width of the timescale region and display more dates.

目標

Action to take

變更開始及 (或) 結束日期

  1. In your Gantt chart, right-click anywhere in the timescale, and then click Date Options on the shortcut menu.

  2. Under Timescale range, select a new start or end date or time, and then click OK.

變更時間單位

  1. In your Gantt chart, right-click anywhere in the timescale, and then click Date Options on the shortcut menu.

  2. Under Time units, select the Major units and Minor units that you want, and then click OK.

設定非工作日

  1. In your Gantt chart, right-click anywhere in the timescale, and then click Configure Working Time on the shortcut menu.

  2. Select the options that you want for Working days and Working time, and then click OK.

捲動到特定工作或里程碑

  1. Select the task or milestone that you want to scroll to by clicking in the cell containing the task name.

  2. On the Gantt Chart toolbar, click the Scroll To Task button.

附註:  If you don't see the Gantt Chart toolbar, on the View menu, point to Toolbars, and then click Gantt Chart.

捲動到特定日期

In your Gantt chart, right-click anywhere in the timescale, and then click one of the following on the shortcut menu:

  • Scroll to Finish Date, to scroll to the end of the timescale.

  • Scroll One Unit Left, to scroll one minor unit to the left.

  • Scroll One Unit Right, to scroll one minor unit to the right.

  • Scroll to Start Date, to scroll to the beginning of the timescale.

變更時幅區域的寬度

  1. Click once in the gray area at the top of the timescale region, and then click again to select the timescale column.

  2. Drag the green selection handle on the right side of the column in either direction until the region is the width that you want.

顯示更多時間單位

  1. 按一下甘特圖框架周圍的實線以選取框架。

  2. Drag the green selection handle at the right-center of the frame toward the right.

附註: 在您擴充時幅以顯示更多時間單位時,也會變更與您專案相關的結束日期。

Top of Page

Print a large Gantt chart

Unless you are creating a schedule for a small project, your Gantt chart is likely to extend beyond the boundaries of one standard printer page. The following table describes some printing problems you may encounter and steps you can take before you print that will help you get the results you expect.

Problem

Sol ution

採取的動作

Only part of the Gantt chart is printed.

Make sure the entire chart fits on a drawing page.

  1. 在 [檔案] 功能表中,按一下 [版面設定]。

  2. Click the Page Size tab, click Size to fit drawing contents, and then click OK.

The printed page and drawing page orientations are not the same.

Change the printer page orientation.

  1. 在 [檔案] 功能表中,按一下 [版面設定]。

  2. Click the Print Setup tab, click the orientation you want, and then click OK.

You don't know how many pages the chart will be printed across.

Preview how the drawing will be printed before you print it.

  • On the File menu, click Print Preview.

You don't know where the page breaks will occur.

Turn on page breaks to see how many pages the chart will tile across.

  • On the View menu, click Page Breaks. Gray lines on the chart indicate where the page breaks will occur.

The breaks between the printed pages occur at awkward places.

Change the margin settings to control the overlap between pages. The larger the margins, the larger the overlap between pages.

  1. 在 [檔案] 功能表中,按一下 [版面設定]。

  2. On the Print Setup tab, click Setup.

  3. Type the margin settings that you want, and then click OK twice.

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