通过项目管理办公室 (PMO) 支持 Project Online 采用

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什么是 PMO?

你计划在业务中采用 Project Online。 你计划如何使用它,或如何以更好的方式实施它,你要尝试解决什么业务问题? 一些示例可能包括:

  • 我的高管希望更好地了解项目状态。

  • 我需要以更好的方式来管理我的资源并将它们分配给项目。

  • 我想轻松跟踪人员花费在任务上的时间。

  • 我希望通过比使用 Excel 电子表格更强大的方法来跟踪项目数据。

Organizations who have been most successful with using Project Online in addressing business problems such as these are the ones that create a set of standards, processes, and best practices for the way that projects are managed in their organization. The person or group that creates and manages these rules of project management is sometimes referred to as the Project Management Office (PMO).

PMO 有什么作用?

在较大公司中,PMO 可能包含处理整个组织中的项目管理问题(例如项目管理治理、实现、培训、研究项目管理需求或确定构建有用报表的最佳方式)的部门。 在小型或中型企业中,PMO 的范围可以从一个人到一小群人,不过也可以进行扩展以尝试解决与大型企业中相同的问题。 但是,所有 PMO 的共同目标包括:

  • 推动和宣传项目管理系统的采用。

  • 通过采用工具自动执行流程,为组织的用户简化项目管理。

  • 围绕项目管理功能,制订策略、过程和最佳做法。

  • 通过针对项目管理方面的所有事项充当“卓越中心”,并提供有关项目管理最佳做法和工具的培训,成为项目管理主题专家。

  • 由高管支持进行授权,以便通过其建议来进行和实施更改。

仍然感到困惑? 退一步讲,举一个与人们的生活密切相关的例子 - 一家之主如何照顾好自己的家庭:

需要

PMO

家庭

PMO - 信息

PMO 可帮助建立一种高效的方法,以通过项目状态和运行状况报告来向项目利益干系人提供信息。 这可能涉及研究报告需求、将所需数据移动到系统以及建立工作流以确保定期报告所需的数据及时进入系统。

一家之主需要有关各种事情的进展情况的信息:

  • 有关子女学习的季度报告。

  • 用于显示财务状态的每月银行对帐单。

  • 用于确定家庭成员健康状况的每年就医情况。

有关谁在做什么的 PMO 信息

The PMO creates processes to get the right data to the project management system to provide status at a project level to project managers. It also provides guidance and best practices for resource management.

家庭中的人员需要了解工作分工。 这可能包括:

  • 谁今天去学校接子女回家、在晚上遛狗、做晚餐等。

  • 如果有人无法执行其往常的任务,则你需要知道谁可以顶替。

  • 在中央家庭日历上显示每个人的工作和学校日程安排以及空闲状态将非常有用。 这样一来,可以安排谁做那件事情就一目了然了。

PMO - 协作论坛

PMO 可帮助创建项目协作网站并自定义它们以更好地满足网站用户的需求。

家庭成员需要一个论坛,他们可以在其中进行协作,如:

  • 在厨房的墙壁日历上发布重要活动

  • 每天晚餐时相互交流。

PMO - 评估和缓解风险

PMO 负责设置系统以处理风险管理。

一家之主需要进行计划以降低风险:

  • 针对健康状况确定保险需求。

  • 购买健康俱乐部成员资格。

  • 增加储蓄额供退休后使用。

PMO - 建立规则和流程

The PMO looks at current processes and workflows, and finds a method of automating them through the project management tool being implemented. One of these might involve determining drivers for selecting which projects to move forward on given a set budget (portfolio analysis).

一家之主会建立家法和流程,例如:

  • 制定子女的宵禁或睡眠时间

  • 查看各种因素以确定要采购的物件(例如,“我们今年应不应该购置汽车、修葺屋顶或外出度假?”)。

  • 通过自动计时器设置草坪洒水器。

  • 选择一周中的某个时间来购买生活必需品以及外出办事。

PMO 可通过完成以下任务来推动公司实施更高效的项目管理:

  • 收集信息以帮助为组织定义项目管理要求。 例如,分析组织的业务需求,设计流程来应对这些需求,随后将这些流程在 Project Online 中映射到设置或工作流。

  • 确定对于持续审查十分重要的数据,并与项目管理员进行合作,以便将这些数据与利益干系人共享。 例如,确定所需数据以及使数据进入系统的流程,以创建每周项目状态报告,从而向利益干系人提供正在进行的项目的运行状况汇总。

  • 为流程和工作流创建规则。 例如,在 Project Online 中建立使项目想法经过审批流程从而成为项目的工作流。

  • 将现有数据从当前项目管理系统迁移到新系统中。 例如,寻找将资源和项目数据从 Microsoft Excel 电子表格迁移到 Project Online,或从每个人的计算机上的 Project Professional 迁移到集中式 Project Online 环境中的最简单方法。

  • Providing project portfolio management support to help with project prioritization and forecasting. Like most companies, there are many projects you'd like to do, but have limited budget and resources to do all of them. You need a way to determine which projects that you should move on. PMOs can drive the project and program selection process to ensure that future investments are in alignment with the organization's strategic goals and growth vision.

  • Managing the emotional changes users might face in moving from their current project management system to which they are attached. For example, tactfully influencing project managers to move from their old process of saving their project files to their hard drives and sharing them out by showing them the advantages of publishing them to Project Online. The PMO might do this by devoting more time to convincing the more senior project managers first, and hoping their influence on the other project managers helps to drive the change.

  • 通过提供卓越的培训选项来管理不断变化的技术难题。

为什么需要 PMO?

In the family example, the consequences of not addressing some of the needs can be dire. For example, not reviewing a child's report card when it first arrives might result in the assumption that things are fine, when actually more study time or a tutor might be needed. In the same way, deploying Project Online without creating an entity to help with standardization and adoption can also have dire circumstances. Establishing a PMO will help to increase the chances of success for your Project Online deployment. Depending on your goals, this can translate to better efficiency in project management (for example, more projects completed on time), which is usually associated with lower costs to manage projects (for example, more project completed at or under budget).

创建 PMO 时的开始步骤是什么?

如果你努力查找本文,则创建 PMO 的开始步骤可能已完成。 如果你有兴趣迁移到 Project Online,则很有可能已了解它如何在你的公司中提高效率或解决问题。 在正式推出 PMO 的过程中,你应考虑以下事项:

定义希望 PMO 完成的工作

Is the main goal of your PMO going to be to address a specific business problem? For example, you might want to implement a timesheet system to get tighter control of costs analysis. Or you might have your project data spread across two or even three different applications, and want to consolidate the data into a single system, which would help to provide better insight into the execution of projects. Or it might be to provide ongoing project management guidance, and address project manager training needs. Once you understand why your PMO is needed, it will be much easier to scope what the requirements are in establishing and maintaining it.

获取高管支持

确保有高管支持你。 PMO 获得高管支持十分重要,因为缺少高管支持是 PMO 失败的主要原因之一。 如果已有一名高管知道你所尝试的工作的好处和重要性,则再好不过了! 否则,使他们支持你的最佳方法之一是向他们演示迁移到项目管理系统(如 Project Online)的好处。 可以通过向他们演示将得到解决的业务问题来实现此目的。 你可能已在首先评估 Project Online 时在某种程度上进行了此工作,但是如果你能够在试验环境中向高管演示它如何处理你自己的数据,那么确实可以找到高管盟友。 获得好处对于获取高管支持至关重要。

Strong executive sponsorship can be helpful in addressing resistance users might have in moving from what they are familiar with, to a new project management system, such as Project Online. Evangelizing and promoting the benefits to other influential stakeholders, such as senior project managers, can also help in breaking any emotional attachments that other users might have to the system you are moving from.

组建团队

无论你是在大型还是小型公司中尝试建立 PMO,以下都是需要由 PMO 中的角色承担的职责:

角色

说明

推动 Project Online 采用计划

If you are in the process of implementing Project Online, the overall plan needs someone to drive it. Just like any project, the adoption plan needs an owner to ensure that the required tasks are staffed and completed.

研究项目管理需求

此人员将评估你组织的项目管理要求。 此人员需要与整个公司以及各个部门间的用户交谈,以了解他们当前如何管理项目、他们的要求是什么以及如何通过实现 Project Online 来改进这些要求。 这些要求需要向项目管理员进行陈述,以便可以正确地在 Project Online 中实现。 此人员必须具有良好的项目管理技能,而且还应是良好的沟通者。 公司中的人员很可能对你尝试让他们放弃的流程具有情感依附,因此此人员需要能够通过演示新系统如何使其工作更轻松来处理此问题。

培训、文档和支持

此人员需要评估用户的技能级别,并负责提供成功使用产品所需的培训资源。 这可能包括为项目管理员、项目经理、团队领导和团队成员创建基于角色的培训。 虽然你将大部分精力投入于针对项目经理或管理员进行培训,不过团队领导和团队成员可能会发现课程摘要卡、速查表、清单或简短教程最有效。 你还需要找到为用户提供内部支持的方法,以及通过适当路线呈报更复杂问题的方法。

联络 IT 部门

Collaboration with your IT department is essential in engaging them to assist in the sign up, setup, and configuration of Project Online. If you are only in the process of evaluating Project Online, this can typically be done by someone from your IT department without too much trouble by looking at the Get started with Project Online documentation.

PMO 需要与 IT 部门合作解决以下两个方面的问题:

  • Office 365 administration: The PMO will need to work with the Office 365 administrator for assigning users and licenses.

  • Project Online 管理:PMO 还需要与 Project Online 管理员在诸如自定义字段、资源和时间表配置等方面进行合作。 他们可能还需要与 PMO 合作,以通过工作流在 Project Online 中实现相应流程。

较大公司中的一些 PMO 还具有项目经理,可分配他们以向需要帮助的特定项目提供指导。 这可以从向项目所有者提供建议,到在项目范围内实际接管所有权。

为 PMO 创建任务说明

所有 PMO 都应具有任务说明。 如果你已经评估了对 PMO 的需要,那么创建此说明会容易得多。 请查看你公司的现有任务说明,然后也尝试创建一个与它保持一致的任务说明。 它不需要过于复杂,仅仅提供对 PMO 为何存在及其在公司中的角色的所有基本了解便足够了。

创建计划来构建 PMO

After scoping out the tasks you need to build your PMO, you might want to create a high-level project plan for it. Consider the building of your PMO as one big project, with associated tasks, durations, and assignments. Your project plan will become more defined as you step through some of the initial tasks, such as assessing your environment. The project plan helps to give your PMO a build schedule to keep track of what you have done, what you are working on, and what you have yet to do in creating your PMO. For example, here are how several PMO build tasks in a Project Online project plan might look:

Project Online 中的 PMO 项目计划

了解有关 PMO 的详细信息

If you do not already have a PMO, you may be intimidated a bit at the thought of starting one. Although your company’s needs and requirements will drive your PMO, you need to learn how to create the framework to establish and evolve your PMO. Depending on your goals, you might want to research the various PMO process and industry methodologies, or see which PMO model you might closely align with. There are many books, training, and online resources available about creating and managing PMOs that can help you in your efforts.

If you are trying to set up a PMO and need assistance, you may want to contact a Microsoft Certified Partner or Microsoft Consulting Services. We also have in-house consultants at Microsoft with excellent experience at setting up PMOs for small, medium, and large companies.

现在该怎么办呢?

So, are you ready to start your PMO? Hopefully, you’ve realized after reading this article that starting a PMO is an investment that will be well worth the time and effort. It will require a lot of collaboration with people in your company, and having an executive “champion” is essential. It will also require an investment in researching more about setting up a PMO through the many resources that are available. And if you need help, you can turn to Microsoft Certified Partners as well as Microsoft Consulting Services.

If you are in a smaller company, the scope of all of this may seem overwhelming. You may not have the resources to hire people for each PMO role noted in the “Build your team” table, and you don’t need to. Just be aware that these are responsibilities that will likely need to be addressed at some point in time, and to a degree that suits your requirements. Also note that the effort needed can scale to your company size and goals. A PMO in a smaller company might only need to meet with a few senior project managers in their company to assess their needs, versus multiple departments with varied requirements in a larger company.

建立 PMO 可以帮助你推动 Project Online 成功,并且使用 Project Online 可以推动 PMO 成功。 祝你实施顺利!

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