Switch between relative, absolute, and mixed references

  1. Select the cell that contains the formula.

  2. In the formula bar Button image, select the reference that you want to change.

  3. Press F4 to switch between the reference types.

    The following table summarizes how a reference type updates if a formula containing the reference is copied two cells down and two cells to the right.

For a formula being copied:

If the reference is:

It changes to:

Formula being copied

$A$1 (absolute column and absolute row)


A$1 (relative column and absolute row)


$A1 (absolute column and relative row)


A1 (relative column and relative row)


Applies To: Excel 2007

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