Excel functions (by category)
Worksheet functions are categorized by their functionality. Click a category to browse its functions. Or press Ctrl+F to find a function by typing the first few letters or a descriptive word. To get detailed information about a function, click its name in the first column.
Function categories
Our 10 most popular functions
Here are the 10 functions that people read about most.
Function 
Description 
Use this function to add the values in cells. 

Use this function to return one value if a condition is true and another value if it's false. Here's a video about using the IF function. 

Use this function when you need to look in a single row or column and find a value from the same position in a second row or column. 

Use this function when you need to find things in a table or a range by row. For example, look up an employee's last name by her employee number, or find her phone number by looking up her last name (just like a telephone book). Check out this video about using VLOOKUP. 

Use this function to search for an item in a range of cells, and then return the relative position of that item in the range. For example, if the range A1:A3 contains the values 5, 7, and 38, then the formula =MATCH(7,A1:A3,0) returns the number 2, because 7 is the second item in the range. 

Use this function to select one of up to 254 values based on the index number. For example, if value1 through value7 are the days of the week, CHOOSE returns one of the days when a number between 1 and 7 is used as index_num. 

Use this function to return the sequential serial number that represents a particular date. This function is most useful in situations where the year, month, and day are supplied by formulas or cell references. For example, you might have a worksheet that contains dates in a format that Excel does not recognize, such as YYYYMMDD. Use the DATEDIF function to calculate the number of days, months, or years between two dates. 

Use this function to return the number of days between two dates. 

FIND and FINDB locate one text string within a second text string. They return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string. 

Use this function to return a value or the reference to a value from within a table or range. 
Compatibility functions
In Excel 2010 or later, these functions were replaced with new functions that provide improved accuracy and have names that better reflect their usage. You can still use them for compatibility with earlier versions of Excel, but if backward compatibility isn't required, you should start using the new functions instead. For more information about the new functions, see Statistical functions (reference) and Math and trigonometry functions (reference) .
If you're using Excel 2007, you'll find these functions in the Statistical or Math & Trig categories on the Formulas tab.
Function 
Description 
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function 

Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution 

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability 

Returns the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 

Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 

Returns the test for independence 

Joins two or more text strings into one string 

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean 

Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations 

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value 

Returns the exponential distribution 

Returns the F probability distribution 

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution 

Rounds a number down, toward zero 

Calculates, or predicts, a future value by using existing values. 

Returns the result of an Ftest 

Returns the gamma distribution 

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution 

Returns the hypergeometric distribution 

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function 

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution 

Returns the most common value in a data set 

Returns the negative binomial distribution 

Returns the normal cumulative distribution 

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution 

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution 

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution 

Returns the kth percentile of values in a range 

Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set 

Returns the Poisson distribution 

Returns the quartile of a data set 

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample 

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population 

Returns the Student's tdistribution 

Returns the inverse of the Student's tdistribution 

Returns the probability associated with a Student's ttest 

Estimates variance based on a sample 

Calculates variance based on the entire population 

Returns the Weibull distribution 

Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest 
Cube functions
Function 
Description 
Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) property and displays the KPI name in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, that is used to monitor an organization's performance. 

Returns a member or tuple from the cube. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube. 

Returns the value of a member property from the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member. 

Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or the top 10 students. 

Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel. 

Returns the number of items in a set. 

Returns an aggregated value from the cube. 
Database functions
Function 
Description 
Returns the average of selected database entries 

Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database 

Counts nonblank cells in a database 

Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria 

Returns the maximum value from selected database entries 

Returns the minimum value from selected database entries 

Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database 

Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries 

Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries 

Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria 

Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries 

Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries 
Date and time functions
Function 
Description 
Returns the serial number of a particular date 

Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age. 

Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number 

Converts a serial number to a day of the month 

Returns the number of days between two dates 

Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year 

Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date 

Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months 

Converts a serial number to an hour 

Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date 

Converts a serial number to a minute 

Converts a serial number to a month 

Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates 

Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days 

Returns the serial number of the current date and time 

Converts a serial number to a second 

Returns the serial number of a particular time 

Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number 

Returns the serial number of today's date 

Converts a serial number to a day of the week 

Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year 

Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays 

Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days 

Converts a serial number to a year 

Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date 
Engineering functions
Function 
Description 
Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) 

Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) 

Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) 

Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) 

Converts a binary number to decimal 

Converts a binary number to hexadecimal 

Converts a binary number to octal 

Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers 

Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits 

Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers 

Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits 

Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers 

Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number 

Converts a number from one measurement system to another 

Converts a decimal number to binary 

Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal 

Converts a decimal number to octal 

Tests whether two values are equal 

Returns the error function 

Returns the error function 

Returns the complementary error function 

Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity 

Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value 

Converts a hexadecimal number to binary 

Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal 

Converts a hexadecimal number to octal 

Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number 

Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number 

Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians 

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number 

Returns the cosine of a complex number 

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number 

Returns the cotangent of a complex number 

Returns the cosecant of a complex number 

Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number 

Returns the quotient of two complex numbers 

Returns the exponential of a complex number 

Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number 

Returns the base10 logarithm of a complex number 

Returns the base2 logarithm of a complex number 

Returns a complex number raised to an integer power 

Returns the product of from 2 to 255 complex numbers 

Returns the real coefficient of a complex number 

Returns the secant of a complex number 

Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number 

Returns the sine of a complex number 

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number 

Returns the square root of a complex number 

Returns the difference between two complex numbers 

Returns the sum of complex numbers 

Returns the tangent of a complex number 

Converts an octal number to binary 

Converts an octal number to decimal 

Converts an octal number to hexadecimal 
Financial functions
Function 
Description 
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest 

Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity 

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient 

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period 

Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date 

Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date 

Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date 

Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date 

Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date 

Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date 

Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods 

Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods 

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixeddeclining balance method 

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the doubledeclining balance method or some other method that you specify 

Returns the discount rate for a security 

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number 

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction 

Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments 

Returns the effective annual interest rate 

Returns the future value of an investment 

Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates 

Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security 

Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period 

Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows 

Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment 

Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100 

Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates 

Returns the annual nominal interest rate 

Returns the number of periods for an investment 

Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period 

Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period 

Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period 

Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value 

Returns the periodic payment for an annuity 

Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity 

Returns the present value of an investment 

Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity 

Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security 

Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment 

Returns the straightline depreciation of an asset for one period 

Returns the sumofyears' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period 

Returns the bondequivalent yield for a Treasury bill 

Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill 

Returns the yield for a Treasury bill 

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method 

Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic 

Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic 

Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest 

Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill 

Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity 
Information functions
Function 
Description 
Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell 

Returns a number corresponding to an error type 

Returns information about the current operating environment


Returns TRUE if the value is blank 

Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A 

Returns TRUE if the value is any error value 

Returns TRUE if the number is even 

Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula 

Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value 

Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value 

Returns TRUE if the value is not text 

Returns TRUE if the value is a number 

Returns TRUE if the number is odd 

Returns TRUE if the value is a reference 

Returns TRUE if the value is text 

Returns a value converted to a number 

Returns the error value #N/A 

Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet 

Returns the number of sheets in a reference 

Returns a number indicating the data type of a value 
Logical functions
Function 
Description 
Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE 

Returns the logical value FALSE 

Specifies a logical test to perform 

Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula 

Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression 

Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition. 

Reverses the logic of its argument 

Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE 

Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned. 

Returns the logical value TRUE 

Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments 
Lookup and reference functions
Function 
Description 
Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet 

Returns the number of areas in a reference 

Chooses a value from a list of values 

Returns the column number of a reference 

Returns the number of columns in a reference 

Returns the formula at the given reference as text 

Returns data stored in a PivotTable report 

Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell 

Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet 

Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array 

Returns a reference indicated by a text value 

Looks up values in a vector or array 

Looks up values in a reference or array 

Returns a reference offset from a given reference 

Returns the row number of a reference 

Returns the number of rows in a reference 

Retrieves realtime data from a program that supports COM automation 

Returns the transpose of an array 

Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell 
Math and trigonometry functions
Function 
Description 
Returns the absolute value of a number 

Returns the arccosine of a number 

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number 

Returns the arccotangent of a number 

Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number 

Returns an aggregate in a list or database 

Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number 

Returns the arcsine of a number 

Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number 

Returns the arctangent of a number 

Returns the arctangent from x and ycoordinates 

Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number 

Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base) 

Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 

Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 

Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. 

Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects 

Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items 

Returns the cosine of a number 

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number 

Returns the cotangent of an angle 

Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number 

Returns the cosecant of an angle 

Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle 

Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number 

Converts radians to degrees 

Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer 

Returns e raised to the power of a given number 

Returns the factorial of a number 

Returns the double factorial of a number 

Rounds a number down, toward zero 

Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 

Rounds a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded down. 

Returns the greatest common divisor 

Rounds a number down to the nearest integer 

Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 

Returns the least common multiple 

Returns the natural logarithm of a number 

Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base 

Returns the base10 logarithm of a number 

Returns the matrix determinant of an array 

Returns the matrix inverse of an array 

Returns the matrix product of two arrays 

Returns the remainder from division 

Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple 

Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers 

Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension 

Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer 

Returns the value of pi 

Returns the result of a number raised to a power 

Multiplies its arguments 

Returns the integer portion of a division 

Converts degrees to radians 

Returns a random number between 0 and 1 

Returns a random number between the numbers you specify 

Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text 

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits 

Rounds a number down, toward zero 

Rounds a number up, away from zero 

Returns the secant of an angle 

Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle 

Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula 

Returns the sign of a number 

Returns the sine of the given angle 

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number 

Returns a positive square root 

Returns the square root of (number * pi) 

Returns a subtotal in a list or database 

Adds its arguments 

Adds the cells specified by a given criteria 

Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria 

Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components 

Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments 

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays 

Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays 

Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays 

Returns the tangent of a number 

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number 

Truncates a number to an integer 
Statistical functions
Function 
Description 
Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean 

Returns the average of its arguments 

Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 

Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria 

Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria 

Returns the beta cumulative distribution function 

Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution 

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability 

Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution 

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value 

Returns the cumulative beta probability density function 

Returns the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 

Returns the cumulative beta probability density function 

Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 

Returns the test for independence 

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean 

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution 

Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets 

Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments 

Counts how many values are in the list of arguments 

Counts the number of blank cells within a range 

Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria 

Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria 

Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations 

Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets 

Returns the sum of squares of deviations 

Returns the exponential distribution 

Returns the F probability distribution 

Returns the F probability distribution 

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution 

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution 

Returns the result of an Ftest 

Returns the Fisher transformation 

Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation 

Returns a value along a linear trend


Returns a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm


Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date


Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series


Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting


Returns a future value based on existing values


Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array 

Returns the Gamma function value 

Returns the gamma distribution 

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution 

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) 

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) 

Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution 

Returns the geometric mean 

Returns values along an exponential trend 

Returns the harmonic mean 

Returns the hypergeometric distribution 

Returns the intercept of the linear regression line 

Returns the kurtosis of a data set 

Returns the kth largest value in a data set 

Returns the parameters of a linear trend 

Returns the parameters of an exponential trend 

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution 

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution 

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments 

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 

Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria 

Returns the median of the given numbers 

Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments 

Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 

Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. 

Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data 

Returns the most common value in a data set 

Returns the negative binomial distribution 

Returns the normal cumulative distribution 

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution 

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution 

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution 

Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient 

Returns the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive 

Returns the kth percentile of values in a range 

Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set 

Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set 

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects 

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects 

Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution 

Returns the Poisson distribution 

Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits 

Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive 

Returns the quartile of a data set 

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 

Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient 

Returns the skewness of a distribution 

Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean 

Returns the slope of the linear regression line 

Returns the kth smallest value in a data set 

Returns a normalized value 

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population 

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample 

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values 

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 

Returns the standard error of the predicted yvalue for each x in the regression 

Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student tdistribution 

Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student tdistribution 

Returns the Student's tdistribution 

Returns the tvalue of the Student's tdistribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom 

Returns the inverse of the Student's tdistribution 

Returns the probability associated with a Student's ttest 

Returns values along a linear trend 

Returns the mean of the interior of a data set 

Calculates variance based on the entire population 

Estimates variance based on a sample 

Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values 

Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 

Returns the Weibull distribution 

Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest 
Text functions
Function 
Description 
Changes fullwidth (doublebyte) English letters or katakana within a character string to halfwidth (singlebyte) characters 

Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format 

Returns the character specified by the code number 

Removes all nonprintable characters from text 

Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string 

Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments. 

Joins several text items into one text item 

Changes halfwidth (singlebyte) English letters or katakana within a character string to fullwidth (doublebyte) characters 

Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format 

Checks to see if two text values are identical 

Finds one text value within another (casesensitive) 

Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals 

Returns the leftmost characters from a text value 

Returns the number of characters in a text string 

Converts text to lowercase 

Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify 

Converts text to number in a localeindependent manner 

Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string 

Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value 

Replaces characters within text 

Repeats text a given number of times 

Returns the rightmost characters from a text value 

Finds one text value within another (not casesensitive) 

Substitutes new text for old text in a text string 

Converts its arguments to text 

Formats a number and converts it to text 

Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges. 

Removes spaces from text 

Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value 

Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text 

Converts text to uppercase 

Converts a text argument to a number 
User defined functions that are installed with addins
If addins that you install contain functions, these addin or automation functions will be available in the User Defined category in the Insert Function dialog box.
Function 
Description 
Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource 

Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation) 

Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered 

Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming 
Web functions
Function 
Description 
Returns a URLencoded string 

Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath 

Returns data from a web service 