﻿ Excel functions (by category)

# Excel functions (by category)

Worksheet functions are categorized by their functionality. Click a category to browse its functions. Or press Ctrl+F to find a function by typing the first few letters or a descriptive word. To get detailed information about a function, click its name in the first column.

## Function categories

Note   Version markers indicate the version of Excel a function was introduced. These functions aren't available in earlier versions.

The calculated results of formulas and some Excel worksheet functions may differ slightly between a Windows PC using x86 or x86-64 architecture and a Windows RT PC using ARM architecture. Learn more about the differences.

## Our 10 most popular functions

 Function Description Use this function to add the values in cells. Use this function to return one value if a condition is true and another value if it's false. Here's a video about using the IF function. Use this function when you need to look in a single row or column and find a value from the same position in a second row or column. Use this function when you need to find things in a table or a range by row. For example, look up an employee's last name by her employee number, or find her phone number by looking up her last name (just like a telephone book). Check out this video about using VLOOKUP. Use this function to search for an item in a range of cells, and then return the relative position of that item in the range. For example, if the range A1:A3 contains the values 5, 7, and 38, then the formula =MATCH(7,A1:A3,0) returns the number 2, because 7 is the second item in the range. Use this function to select one of up to 254 values based on the index number. For example, if value1 through value7 are the days of the week, CHOOSE returns one of the days when a number between 1 and 7 is used as index_num. Use this function to return the sequential serial number that represents a particular date. This function is most useful in situations where the year, month, and day are supplied by formulas or cell references. For example, you might have a worksheet that contains dates in a format that Excel does not recognize, such as YYYYMMDD. Use the DATEDIF function to calculate the number of days, months, or years between two dates. Use this function to return the number of days between two dates. FIND and FINDB locate one text string within a second text string. They return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string. Use this function to return a value or the reference to a value from within a table or range.

## Compatibility functions

In Excel 2010 or later, these functions were replaced with new functions that provide improved accuracy and have names that better reflect their usage. You can still use them for compatibility with earlier versions of Excel, but if backward compatibility isn't required, you should start using the new functions instead. For more information about the new functions, see Statistical functions (reference) and Math and trigonometry functions (reference) .

If you're using Excel 2007, you'll find these functions in the Statistical or Math & Trig categories on the Formulas tab.

 Function Description Returns the beta cumulative distribution function Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution Returns the test for independence Returns the confidence interval for a population mean Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value Returns the exponential distribution Returns the F probability distribution Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution Rounds a number down, toward zero Returns the result of an F-test Returns the gamma distribution Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution Returns the hypergeometric distribution Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution Returns the most common value in a data set Returns the negative binomial distribution Returns the normal cumulative distribution Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set Returns the Poisson distribution Returns the quartile of a data set Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Estimates standard deviation based on a sample Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population Returns the Student's t-distribution Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test Estimates variance based on a sample Calculates variance based on the entire population Returns the Weibull distribution Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test

## Cube functions

 Function Description Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) property and displays the KPI name in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, that is used to monitor an organization's performance. Returns a member or tuple from the cube. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube. Returns the value of a member property from the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member. Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or the top 10 students. Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel. Returns the number of items in a set. Returns an aggregated value from the cube.

## Database functions

 Function Description Returns the average of selected database entries Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database Counts nonblank cells in a database Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria Returns the maximum value from selected database entries Returns the minimum value from selected database entries Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries

## Date and time functions

 Function Description Returns the serial number of a particular date Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age. Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number Converts a serial number to a day of the month Returns the number of days between two dates Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months Converts a serial number to an hour Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date Converts a serial number to a minute Converts a serial number to a month Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days Returns the serial number of the current date and time Converts a serial number to a second Returns the serial number of a particular time Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number Returns the serial number of today's date Converts a serial number to a day of the week Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days Converts a serial number to a year Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date

## Engineering functions

 Function Description Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) Converts a binary number to decimal Converts a binary number to hexadecimal Converts a binary number to octal Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number Converts a number from one measurement system to another Converts a decimal number to binary Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal Converts a decimal number to octal Tests whether two values are equal Returns the error function Returns the error function Returns the complementary error function Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value Converts a hexadecimal number to binary Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal Converts a hexadecimal number to octal Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number Returns the cosine of a complex number Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number Returns the cotangent of a complex number Returns the cosecant of a complex number Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number Returns the quotient of two complex numbers Returns the exponential of a complex number Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number Returns a complex number raised to an integer power Returns the product of from 2 to 255 complex numbers Returns the real coefficient of a complex number Returns the secant of a complex number Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number Returns the sine of a complex number Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number Returns the square root of a complex number Returns the difference between two complex numbers Returns the sum of complex numbers Returns the tangent of a complex number Converts an octal number to binary Converts an octal number to decimal Converts an octal number to hexadecimal

## Financial functions

 Function Description Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient Returns the depreciation for each accounting period Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify Returns the discount rate for a security Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments Returns the effective annual interest rate Returns the future value of an investment Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100 Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates Returns the annual nominal interest rate Returns the number of periods for an investment Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value Returns the periodic payment for an annuity Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity Returns the present value of an investment Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill Returns the yield for a Treasury bill Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity

## Information functions

 Function Description Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell Note    This function is not available in Excel Online. Returns a number corresponding to an error type Returns information about the current operating environment Note    This function is not available in Excel Online. Returns TRUE if the value is blank Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A Returns TRUE if the value is any error value Returns TRUE if the number is even Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value Returns TRUE if the value is not text Returns TRUE if the value is a number Returns TRUE if the number is odd Returns TRUE if the value is a reference Returns TRUE if the value is text Returns a value converted to a number Returns the error value #N/A Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet Returns the number of sheets in a reference Returns a number indicating the data type of a value

## Logical functions

 Function Description Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE Returns the logical value FALSE Specifies a logical test to perform Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression Reverses the logic of its argument Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE Returns the logical value TRUE Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments

## Lookup and reference functions

 Function Description Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet Returns the number of areas in a reference Chooses a value from a list of values Returns the column number of a reference Returns the number of columns in a reference Returns the formula at the given reference as text Returns data stored in a PivotTable report Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array Returns a reference indicated by a text value Looks up values in a vector or array Looks up values in a reference or array Returns a reference offset from a given reference Returns the row number of a reference Returns the number of rows in a reference Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation Returns the transpose of an array Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell

## Math and trigonometry functions

 Function Description Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number Returns the arccotangent of a number Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number Returns an aggregate in a list or database Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number Returns the arctangent of a number Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base) Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items Returns the cosine of a number Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number Returns the cotangent of an angle Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number Returns the cosecant of an angle Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number Converts radians to degrees Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer Returns e raised to the power of a given number Returns the factorial of a number Returns the double factorial of a number Rounds a number down, toward zero Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Rounds a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded down. Returns the greatest common divisor Rounds a number down to the nearest integer Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Returns the least common multiple Returns the natural logarithm of a number Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number Returns the matrix determinant of an array Returns the matrix inverse of an array Returns the matrix product of two arrays Returns the remainder from division Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer Returns the value of pi Returns the result of a number raised to a power Multiplies its arguments Returns the integer portion of a division Converts degrees to radians Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Returns a random number between the numbers you specify Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text Rounds a number to a specified number of digits Rounds a number down, toward zero Rounds a number up, away from zero Returns the secant of an angle Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula Returns the sign of a number Returns the sine of the given angle Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number Returns a positive square root Returns the square root of (number * pi) Returns a subtotal in a list or database Adds its arguments Adds the cells specified by a given criteria Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays Returns the tangent of a number Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number Truncates a number to an integer

## Statistical functions

 Function Description Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean Returns the average of its arguments Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria Returns the beta cumulative distribution function Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value Returns the cumulative beta probability density function Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution Returns the cumulative beta probability density function Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution Returns the test for independence Returns the confidence interval for a population mean Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments Counts how many values are in the list of arguments Counts the number of blank cells within a range Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets Returns the sum of squares of deviations Returns the exponential distribution Returns the F probability distribution Returns the F probability distribution Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution Returns the result of an F-test Returns the Fisher transformation Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation Returns a value along a linear trend Note   In Excel 2016, this function is replaced with FORECAST.LINEAR as part of the new Forecasting functions, but it's still available for compatibility with earlier versions. Returns a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm Note   This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date Note   This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series Note   This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting Note   This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Returns a future value based on existing values Note   This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array Returns the Gamma function value Returns the gamma distribution Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution Returns the geometric mean Returns values along an exponential trend Returns the harmonic mean Returns the hypergeometric distribution Returns the intercept of the linear regression line Returns the kurtosis of a data set Returns the k-th largest value in a data set Returns the parameters of a linear trend Returns the parameters of an exponential trend Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values Returns the median of the given numbers Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data Returns the most common value in a data set Returns the negative binomial distribution Returns the normal cumulative distribution Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution Returns the Poisson distribution Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive Returns the quartile of a data set Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient Returns the skewness of a distribution Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean Returns the slope of the linear regression line Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set Returns a normalized value Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population Estimates standard deviation based on a sample Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution Returns the Student's t-distribution Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test Returns values along a linear trend Returns the mean of the interior of a data set Calculates variance based on the entire population Estimates variance based on a sample Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values Returns the Weibull distribution Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test

## Text functions

 Function Description Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format Returns the character specified by the code number Removes all nonprintable characters from text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string Joins several text items into one text item Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters Converts a number to text, using the \$ (dollar) currency format Checks to see if two text values are identical Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals Returns the leftmost characters from a text value Returns the number of characters in a text string Converts text to lowercase Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value Replaces characters within text Repeats text a given number of times Returns the rightmost characters from a text value Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive) Substitutes new text for old text in a text string Converts its arguments to text Formats a number and converts it to text Removes spaces from text Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text Converts text to uppercase Converts a text argument to a number

## User defined functions that are installed with add-ins

If add-ins that you install contain functions, these add-in or automation functions will be available in the User Defined category in the Insert Function dialog box.

Note    User-defined functions (UDFs) are not available in Excel Online.

 Function Description Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation) Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming

## Web functions

Note    Web functions are not available in Excel Online.

 Function Description Returns a URL-encoded string Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath Returns data from a web service

Applies To: Excel 2007, Excel 2016 for Mac, Excel Starter, Excel 2013, Excel 2010, Excel for Mac 2011, Excel Online

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