# Excel functions (alphabetical)

Click a letter to go to functions that start with it. Or press Ctrl+F to find a function by typing the first few letters or a descriptive word. To get detailed information about a function, click its name in the first column.

Note: Version markers indicate the version of Excel a function was introduced. These functions aren't available in earlier versions.

Important: The calculated results of formulas and some Excel worksheet functions may differ slightly between a Windows PC using x86 or x86-64 architecture and a Windows RT PC using ARM architecture. Learn more about the differences.

 Function name Type and description Math and trigonometry:    Returns the absolute value of a number Financial:    Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest Financial:    Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity Math and trigonometry:    Returns the arccosine of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the arccotangent of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns an aggregate in a list or database Lookup and reference:    Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet Financial:    Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient Financial:    Returns the depreciation for each accounting period Logical:    Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE Math and trigonometry:    Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number Lookup and reference:    Returns the number of areas in a reference Text:    Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters Math and trigonometry:    Returns the arcsine of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the arctangent of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates Math and trigonometry:    Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number Statistical:    Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean Statistical:    Returns the average of its arguments Statistical:    Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values Statistical:    Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria Statistical:    Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria. Text:    Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format Math and trigonometry:    Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base) Engineering:    Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) Engineering:    Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) Engineering:    Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) Engineering:    Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) Compatibility:    Returns the beta cumulative distribution function In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the beta cumulative distribution function Compatibility:    Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution Engineering:    Converts a binary number to decimal Engineering:    Converts a binary number to hexadecimal Engineering:    Converts a binary number to octal Compatibility:    Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability Statistical:    Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution Statistical:    Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value Engineering:    Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers Engineering:    Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits Engineering:    Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers Engineering:    Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits Engineering:    Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers Add-in and Automation:    Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. Information:    Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell This function is not available in Excel Online. Text:    Returns the character specified by the code number Compatibility:    Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution Note: In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Compatibility:    Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution Note: In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Compatibility:    Returns the test for independence Note: In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the cumulative beta probability density function Statistical:    Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution Statistical:    Returns the cumulative beta probability density function Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution Statistical:    Returns the test for independence Lookup and reference:    Chooses a value from a list of values Text:    Removes all nonprintable characters from text Text:    Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string Lookup and reference:    Returns the column number of a reference Lookup and reference:    Returns the number of columns in a reference Math and trigonometry:    Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects Math and trigonometry:   Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items Engineering:    Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number Text:    Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments. This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Text:    Joins several text items into one text item Compatibility:    Returns the confidence interval for a population mean In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the confidence interval for a population mean Statistical:    Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution Engineering:    Converts a number from one measurement system to another Statistical:    Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets Math and trigonometry:    Returns the cosine of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the cotangent of an angle Statistical:    Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments Statistical:    Counts how many values are in the list of arguments Statistical:    Counts the number of blank cells within a range Statistical:    Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria Statistical:    Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria Financial:    Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date Financial:    Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date Financial:    Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date Financial:    Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date Financial:    Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date Financial:    Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date Compatibility:    Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations Statistical:    Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets Compatibility:    Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Math and trigonometry:    Returns the cosecant of an angle Math and trigonometry:    Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle Cube:    Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) name, property, and measure, and displays the name and property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, used to monitor an organization's performance. Cube:    Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube. Cube:    Returns the value of a member property in the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member. Cube:    Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or top 10 students. Cube:    Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel. Cube:    Returns the number of items in a set. Cube:    Returns an aggregated value from a cube. Financial:    Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods Financial:    Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods Date and time:    Returns the serial number of a particular date Date and time:    Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age. Date and time:    Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number Database:    Returns the average of selected database entries Date and time:    Converts a serial number to a day of the month Date and time:    Returns the number of days between two dates Date and time:    Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year Financial:    Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method Text:    Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters Database:    Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database Database:    Counts nonblank cells in a database Financial:    Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify Engineering:    Converts a decimal number to binary Engineering:    Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal Engineering:    Converts a decimal number to octal Math and trigonometry:    Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number Math and trigonometry:    Converts radians to degrees Engineering:    Tests whether two values are equal Statistical:    Returns the sum of squares of deviations Database:    Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria Financial:    Returns the discount rate for a security Database:    Returns the maximum value from selected database entries Database:    Returns the minimum value from selected database entries Text:    Converts a number to text, using the \$ (dollar) currency format Financial:    Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number Financial:    Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction Database:    Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database Database:    Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries Database:    Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries Database:    Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria Financial:    Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments Database:    Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries Database:    Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries Date and time:    Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date Financial:    Returns the effective annual interest rate Web:    Returns a URL-encoded string This function is not available in Excel Online. Date and time:    Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months Engineering:    Returns the error function Engineering:    Returns the error function Engineering:    Returns the complementary error function Engineering:    Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity Information:    Returns a number corresponding to an error type Add-in and Automation:    Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation). Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer Text:    Checks to see if two text values are identical Math and trigonometry:    Returns e raised to the power of a given number Statistical:    Returns the exponential distribution Compatibility:    Returns the exponential distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Math and trigonometry:    Returns the factorial of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the double factorial of a number Logical:    Returns the logical value FALSE Statistical:    Returns the F probability distribution Compatibility:    Returns the F probability distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the F probability distribution Web:    Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath This function is not available in Excel Online. Text:    Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution Statistical:    Returns the Fisher transformation Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation Text:    Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals Compatibility:    Rounds a number down, toward zero In Excel 2007 and Excel 2010, this is a Math and trigonometry function. Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. Statistical:    Returns a value along a linear trend In Excel 2016, this function is replaced with FORECAST.LINEAR as part of the new Forecasting functions, but it's still available for compatibility with earlier versions. Statistical:    Returns a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Statistical:    Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Statistical:    Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Statistical:    Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Statistical:    Returns a future value based on existing values This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Lookup and reference:    Returns the formula at the given reference as text Statistical:    Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array Statistical:    Returns the result of an F-test Compatibility:    Returns the result of an F-test In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Financial:    Returns the future value of an investment Financial:    Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates Statistical:    Returns the Gamma function value Statistical:    Returns the gamma distribution Compatibility:    Returns the gamma distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution Compatibility:    Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) Statistical:    Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) Statistical:    Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution Math and trigonometry:    Returns the greatest common divisor Statistical:    Returns the geometric mean Engineering:    Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value Add-in and Automation:    Returns data stored in a PivotTable report Statistical:    Returns values along an exponential trend Statistical:    Returns the harmonic mean Engineering:    Converts a hexadecimal number to binary Engineering:    Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal Engineering:    Converts a hexadecimal number to octal Lookup and reference:    Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell Date and time:    Converts a serial number to an hour Lookup and reference:    Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet Statistical:    Returns the hypergeometric distribution Compatibility:    Returns the hypergeometric distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Logical:    Specifies a logical test to perform Logical:    Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula Logical:    Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression Logical:    Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition. This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Engineering:    Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians Engineering:    Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the cosine of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the cotangent of a complex number Engineering:   Returns the cosecant of a complex number Engineering:   Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the quotient of two complex numbers Engineering:    Returns the exponential of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number Engineering:    Returns a complex number raised to an integer power Engineering:    Returns the product of complex numbers Engineering:    Returns the real coefficient of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the secant of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the sine of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the square root of a complex number Engineering:    Returns the difference between two complex numbers Engineering:    Returns the sum of complex numbers Engineering:    Returns the tangent of a complex number Lookup and reference:    Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array Lookup and reference:    Returns a reference indicated by a text value Information:    Returns information about the current operating environment This function is not available in Excel Online. Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number down to the nearest integer Statistical:    Returns the intercept of the linear regression line Financial:    Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security Financial:    Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period Financial:    Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows Information:    Returns TRUE if the value is blank Information:    Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A Information:    Returns TRUE if the value is any error value Information:    Returns TRUE if the number is even Information:    Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula Information:    Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value Information:    Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value Information:    Returns TRUE if the value is not text Information:    Returns TRUE if the value is a number Information:    Returns TRUE if the number is odd Information:    Returns TRUE if the value is a reference Information:    Returns TRUE if the value is text Math and trigonometry:    Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Date and time:   Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date Financial:    Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment Text:   Changes half-width (single-byte) characters within a string to full-width (double-byte) characters Statistical:    Returns the kurtosis of a data set Statistical:    Returns the k-th largest value in a data set Math and trigonometry:    Returns the least common multiple Text:    Returns the leftmost characters from a text value Text:    Returns the number of characters in a text string Statistical:    Returns the parameters of a linear trend Math and trigonometry:    Returns the natural logarithm of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base Math and trigonometry:    Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number Statistical:    Returns the parameters of an exponential trend Compatibility:    Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution Statistical:    Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution Compatibility:    Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution Lookup and reference:    Looks up values in a vector or array Text:    Converts text to lowercase Lookup and reference:    Looks up values in a reference or array Statistical:    Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments Statistical:    Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values Statistical:    Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Math and trigonometry:    Returns the matrix determinant of an array Financial:    Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100 Statistical:    Returns the median of the given numbers Text:    Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify Statistical:    Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments Statistical:    Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Statistical:    Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values Date and time:    Converts a serial number to a minute Math and trigonometry:    Returns the matrix inverse of an array Financial:    Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates Math and trigonometry:    Returns the matrix product of two arrays Math and trigonometry:    Returns the remainder from division Compatibility:    Returns the most common value in a data set In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data Statistical:    Returns the most common value in a data set Date and time:    Converts a serial number to a month Math and trigonometry:    Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple Math and trigonometry:    Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers Math and trigonometry:    Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension Information:    Returns a value converted to a number Information:    Returns the error value #N/A Statistical:    Returns the negative binomial distribution Compatibility:    Returns the negative binomial distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Date and time:    Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates Date and time:    Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days Financial:    Returns the annual nominal interest rate Statistical:    Returns the normal cumulative distribution Compatibility:    Returns the normal cumulative distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution Compatibility:    Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution Note: In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution Compatibility:    Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution Compatibility:    Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Logical:    Reverses the logic of its argument Date and time:    Returns the serial number of the current date and time Financial:    Returns the number of periods for an investment Financial:    Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate Text:    Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner Engineering:    Converts an octal number to binary Engineering:    Converts an octal number to decimal Engineering:    Converts an octal number to hexadecimal Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer Financial:    Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period Financial:    Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period Financial:    Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period Financial:    Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period Lookup and reference:    Returns a reference offset from a given reference Logical:    Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE Financial:   Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value Statistical:    Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient Statistical:    Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive Statistical:    Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range Compatibility:    Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set Statistical:    Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set Compatibility:    Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects Statistical:    Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects Statistical:    Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution Text:    Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string Math and trigonometry:    Returns the value of pi Financial:    Returns the periodic payment for an annuity Statistical:    Returns the Poisson distribution Compatibility:    Returns the Poisson distribution In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Math and trigonometry:    Returns the result of a number raised to a power Financial:    Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period Financial:    Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest Financial:    Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security Financial:    Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity Statistical:    Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits Math and trigonometry:    Multiplies its arguments Text:    Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value Financial:    Returns the present value of an investment Compatibility:    Returns the quartile of a data set In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive Statistical:    Returns the quartile of a data set Math and trigonometry:    Returns the integer portion of a division Math and trigonometry:    Converts degrees to radians Math and trigonometry:    Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Math and trigonometry:    Returns a random number between the numbers you specify Statistical:    Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Statistical:    Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Compatibility:    Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Financial:    Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity Financial:    Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security Add-in and Automation:    Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered Text:    Replaces characters within text Text:    Repeats text a given number of times Text:    Returns the rightmost characters from a text value Math and trigonometry:    Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number to a specified number of digits Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number down, toward zero Math and trigonometry:    Rounds a number up, away from zero Lookup and reference:    Returns the row number of a reference Lookup and reference:    Returns the number of rows in a reference Financial:    Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment Statistical:    Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient Lookup and reference:    Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation Text:    Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive) Math and trigonometry:    Returns the secant of an angle Math and trigonometry:    Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle Date and time:    Converts a serial number to a second Math and trigonometry:    Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula Information:    Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet Information:    Returns the number of sheets in a reference Math and trigonometry:    Returns the sign of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the sine of the given angle Math and trigonometry:    Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number Statistical:    Returns the skewness of a distribution Statistical:    Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean Financial:    Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period Statistical:    Returns the slope of the linear regression line Statistical:    Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set Add-in and Automation:    Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming Math and trigonometry:    Returns a positive square root Math and trigonometry:    Returns the square root of (number * pi) Statistical:    Returns a normalized value Compatibility:    Estimates standard deviation based on a sample Statistical:    Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population Statistical:    Estimates standard deviation based on a sample Statistical:    Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values Compatibility:    Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values Statistical:    Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression Text:    Substitutes new text for old text in a text string Math and trigonometry:    Returns a subtotal in a list or database Math and trigonometry:    Adds its arguments Math and trigonometry:    Adds the cells specified by a given criteria Math and trigonometry:    Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria Math and trigonometry:    Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components Math and trigonometry:    Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments Math and trigonometry:    Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays Math and trigonometry:    Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays Math and trigonometry:    Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays Logical:    Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned. This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Financial:    Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period Text:    Converts its arguments to text Math and trigonometry:    Returns the tangent of a number Math and trigonometry:    Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number Financial:    Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill Financial:    Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill Financial:    Returns the yield for a Treasury bill Statistical:    Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution Statistical:    Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution Statistical:    Returns the Student's t-distribution Compatibility:    Returns the Student's t-distribution Text:    Formats a number and converts it to text Text:    Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges. This function isn't available in Excel 2016 for Mac. Date and time:    Returns the serial number of a particular time Date and time:    Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number Statistical:    Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom Statistical:    Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution Compatibility:    Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution Date and time:    Returns the serial number of today's date Lookup and reference:    Returns the transpose of an array Statistical:    Returns values along a linear trend Text:    Removes spaces from text Statistical:    Returns the mean of the interior of a data set Logical:    Returns the logical value TRUE Math and trigonometry:    Truncates a number to an integer Statistical:    Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test Compatibility:    Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Information:    Returns a number indicating the data type of a value Text:    Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value Text:    Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text Text:    Converts text to uppercase Text:    Converts a text argument to a number Compatibility:    Estimates variance based on a sample In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Calculates variance based on the entire population Statistical:    Estimates variance based on a sample Statistical:    Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values Compatibility:    Calculates variance based on the entire population In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values Financial:    Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method Lookup and reference:    Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell Web:    Returns data from a web service. This function is not available in Excel Online. Date and time:    Converts a serial number to a day of the week Date and time:    Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year Compatibility:    Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function. Statistical:    Returns the Weibull distribution Date and time:    Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays Date and time:    Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days Financial:    Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic Financial:    Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic Logical:    Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments Date and time:    Converts a serial number to a year Date and time:    Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date Financial:    Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest Financial:    Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill Financial:    Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity Statistical:    Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test Compatibility:    Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

## Help us improve Excel

Do you have suggestions about how we can improve the next version of Excel? If so, please check out the topics at Excel User Voice

## How can we improve it?

To protect your privacy, please do not include contact information in your feedback. Review our privacy policy.