DDB function

This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the DDB function in Microsoft Excel.


Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify.


DDB(cost, salvage, life, period, [factor])

The DDB function syntax has the following arguments:

  • Cost    Required. The initial cost of the asset.

  • Salvage    Required. The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset). This value can be 0.

  • Life    Required. The number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).

  • Period    Required. The period for which you want to calculate the depreciation. Period must use the same units as life.

  • Factor    Optional. The rate at which the balance declines. If factor is omitted, it is assumed to be 2 (the double-declining balance method).

Important   All five arguments must be positive numbers.


  • The double-declining balance method computes depreciation at an accelerated rate. Depreciation is highest in the first period and decreases in successive periods. DDB uses the following formula to calculate depreciation for a period:

Min( (cost - total depreciation from prior periods) * (factor/life), (cost - salvage - total depreciation from prior periods) )

  • Change factor if you do not want to use the double-declining balance method.

  • Use the VDB function if you want to switch to the straight-line depreciation method when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation.


Copy the example data in the following table, and paste it in cell A1 of a new Excel worksheet. For formulas to show results, select them, press F2, and then press Enter. If you need to, you can adjust the column widths to see all the data.





Initial cost


Salvage value


Lifetime in years





First day's depreciation, using double-declining balance method. Default factor is 2.



First month's depreciation.



First year's depreciation.



Second year's depreciation using a factor of 1.5 instead of the double-declining balance method.



Tenth year's depreciation. Default factor is 2.


Applies To: Excel 2016, Excel 2010, Excel Starter, Excel 2013, Excel Online, Excel 2016 for Mac, Excel for Mac 2011, Excel 2007

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