Let's say you want to find out what the midpoint is in a distribution of student grades or a quality control data sample. To calculate the median of a group of numbers, use the MEDIAN function.
The MEDIAN function measures central tendency, which is the location of the center of a group of numbers in a statistical distribution. The three most common measures of central tendency are:

Average which is the arithmetic mean, and is calculated by adding a group of numbers and then dividing by the count of those numbers. For example, the average of 2, 3, 3, 5, 7, and 10 is 30 divided by 6, which is 5.

Median which is the middle number of a group of numbers; that is, half the numbers have values that are greater than the median, and half the numbers have values that are less than the median. For example, the median of 2, 3, 3, 5, 7, and 10 is 4.

Mode which is the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers. For example, the mode of 2, 3, 3, 5, 7, and 10 is 3.
For a symmetrical distribution of a group of numbers, these three measures of central tendency are all the same. For a skewed distribution of a group of numbers, they can be different.
The screen shots in this article were taken in Excel 2016. If you have a different version your view might be slightly different, but unless otherwise noted, the functionality is the same.
Example
The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

Open a blank workbook or worksheet.

How to copy an example
Select the example below.
Note: Do not select the row or column headers.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A
10
7
9
27
0
4
Selecting an example from Help

Press CTRL+C.

In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.

Click inside an empty cell.

Click the Formula tab, and then click AutoSum > More functions.

Type MEDIAN in the Search for a function: box, and then click OK.

Type A1:A7 in the Number1 box.
For this example, the answer that appears in the cell should be 8.
Tip: To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.
Example
The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

Open a blank workbook or worksheet.

How to copy an example
Select the example below.
Note: Do not select the row or column headers.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A
10
7
9
27
0
4
Selecting an example from Help

Press CTRL+C.

In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.

Click inside an empty cell.

Click the Formula tab, and then click AutoSum > More functions.

In the Formula Builder pane, type MEDIAN in the Search box, and then click Insert Function.

Make sure the cell span in the Number1 box matches your data (In this case, A1:A7).
For this example, the answer that appears in the cell should be 8.
Tip: To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.