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When you make a change to the view in a mail folder, the change generally only applies to that particular folder. There's no way to make that change "globally" (for all the other mail folders at the same time). This applies to things like adding columns, using the three-line AutoPreview, grouping, and sorting.
The Reading, or "preview," Pane, turned on by default, also cannot be turned on or off globally. If you choose to turn it off and don't want to see it in any of your mail folders, you must turn it off for each folder.
Note: Changes to the other two panes in the Outlook window, the Navigation Pane and the To-Do Bar, work differently; change in one mail folder is reflected in all mail folders.