# Round a number

Let's say you want to round a number to the nearest whole number because decimal values are not significant to you or round a number to multiples of 10 to simplify an approximation of amounts. There are several ways to round a number.

## Change the number of decimal places displayed, without changing the number

### On a worksheet

1. Select the cells that you want to format.

2. To display more or fewer digits after the decimal point, on the Home tab, in the Number group, click Increase Decimal or Decrease Decimal .

### In a built-in number format

1. On the Home tab, in the Number group, click the arrow, and then click More.

2. In the Category list, click Currency, Accounting, Percentage, or Scientific.

3. In the Decimal places box, enter the number of decimal places that you want to display.

## Round a number up

To do this task, use the ROUNDUP, EVEN, or ODD functions.

### Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

How to copy an example

1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.

2. Select the example in the Help topic.

Note: Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

3. Press CTRL+C.

4. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.

5. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.

 1 2 3 4
 A Data 20.3 -5.9 12.5493 Formula Description (Result) =ROUNDUP(A2,0) Rounds 20.3 up to the nearest whole number (21) =ROUNDUP(A3,0) Rounds -5.9 up (-6) =ROUNDUP(A4,2) Rounds 12.5493 up to the nearest hundredth, two decimal places (12.55) =EVEN(A2) Rounds 20.3 up to the nearest even number (22) =ODD(A2) Rounds 20.3 up to the nearest odd number (21)

## Round a number down

To do this task, use the ROUNDDOWN function.

### Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

How to copy an example

1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.

2. Select the example in the Help topic.

Note: Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

3. Press CTRL+C.

4. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.

5. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.

 1 2 3 4
 A Data 20.3 -5.9 12.5493 Formula Description (Result) =ROUNDDOWN(A2,0) Rounds 20.3 down to the nearest whole number ( 20) =ROUNDDOWN(A3,0) Rounds -5.9 down (-5) =ROUNDDOWN(A4,2) Rounds the number down to the nearest hundredth, two decimal places ( 12.54)

## Round a number to the nearest number

To do this task, use the ROUND function.

### Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

How to copy an example

1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.

2. Select the example in the Help topic.

Note: Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

3. Press CTRL+C.

4. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.

5. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.

 1 2 3 4
 A Data 20.3 5.9 -5.9 Formula Description (Result) =ROUND(A2,0) Rounds 20.3 down, because the fractional part is less than .5 (20) =ROUND(A3,0) Rounds 5.9 up, because the fractional part is greater than .5 (6) =ROUND(A4,0) Rounds -5.9 down, because the fractional part is less than -.5 (-6)

## Round a number to a near fraction

To do this task, use the ROUND function.

### Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

How to copy an example

1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.

2. Select the example in the Help topic.

Note: Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

3. Press CTRL+C.

4. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.

5. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.

 1 2 3
 A Data 1.25 30.452 Formula Description (Result) =ROUND(A2,1) Rounds 1.25 to the nearest tenth (one decimal place). Because the portion to be rounded is 0.05 or greater, the number is rounded up (result: 1.3) =ROUND(A3,2) Rounds 30.452 to the nearest hundredth (two decimal places). Because the portion to be rounded, 0.002, is less than 0.005, the number is rounded down (result: 30.45)

## Round a number to a significant digit

Significant digits are digits that contribute to the accuracy of a number.

The examples in this section use the ROUND, ROUNDUP, and ROUNDDOWN functions. They cover rounding methods for positive, negative, whole, and fractional numbers, but the examples shown represent only a very small list of possible scenarios.

The following list contains some general rules to keep in mind when you round numbers to significant digits. You can experiment with the rounding functions and substitute your own numbers and parameters to return the number of significant digits that you want.

• When rounding a negative number, that number is first converted to its absolute value (its value without the negative sign). The rounding operation then occurs, and then the negative sign is reapplied. Although this may seem to defy logic, it is the way rounding works. For example, using the ROUNDDOWN function to round -889 to two significant digits results in -880. First, -889 is converted to its absolute value of 889. Next, it is rounded down to two significant digits results (880). Finally, the negative sign is reapplied, for a result of -880.

• Using the ROUNDDOWN function on a positive number always rounds a number down, and ROUNDUP always rounds a number up.

• The ROUND function rounds a number containing a fraction as follows: If the fractional part is 0.5 or greater, the number is rounded up. If the fractional part is less than 0.5, the number is rounded down.

• The ROUND function rounds a whole number up or down by following a similar rule to that for fractional numbers; substituting multiples of 5 for 0.5.

• As a general rule, when you round a number that has no fractional part (a whole number), you subtract the length from the number of significant digits to which you want to round. For example, to round 2345678 down to 3 significant digits, you use the ROUNDDOWN function with the parameter -4, as follows: = ROUNDDOWN(2345678,-4). This rounds the number down to 2340000, with the "234" portion as the significant digits.

### Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

How to copy an example

1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.

2. Select the example in the Help topic.

Note: Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

3. Press CTRL+C.

4. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.

5. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
 A Data 5492820 -362845 22270 -889 -0.25 Formula Description (Result) =ROUND(A2,-4) Rounds 5492820 to 3 significant digits (5490000). Because this is a whole number and is 7 digits long, and you want to round to 3 significant digits, you subtract 7 from 3 to find the parameter to enter (-4). =ROUND(A3,-2) Rounds -362845 to 4 significant digits (-362800). As with the preceding example, you subtract the length (6 digits) from the desired number of significant digits (4) to find the parameter to enter (-2). =ROUNDDOWN(A4,-2) Rounds 22270 down to 3 significant digits (22200). Note that the ROUNDDOWN function rounds the "270" portion of the number down to "200." =ROUNDUP(A4,-4) Rounds 22270 up to 1 significant digit (30000). In this example, the one significant digit (the first "2") is rounded up to "3." =ROUNDUP(A5,-1) Rounds -889 up to 2 significant digits (-890). Rounding a negative number requires that you first convert it to its absolute value, so rounding up a negative value actually rounds it downward. =ROUNDDOWN(A5,-1) Rounds -889 down to 2 significant digits (-880). Similar to the preceding example, rounding a negative number down actually rounds it upward. =ROUND(A6,1) Rounds -0.25 to 1 significant digit (-0.3). =ROUNDDOWN(A6,1) Rounds -0.25 down to 1 significant digit (-0.2).

## Round a number to a specified multiple

To do this task, use the MROUND function.

### Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

How to copy an example

1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.

2. Select the example in the Help topic.

Note: Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

3. Press CTRL+C.

4. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.

5. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.

 1 2 3 4 5
 A B Formula Description (Result) =MROUND(16, 5) Rounds 16 to a nearest multiple of 5 (15) =MROUND(-16, -5) Rounds -16 to a nearest multiple of -5 (-15) =MROUND(2.6, 0.08) Rounds 2.6 to a nearest multiple of 0.08 (2.64) =MROUND(5, -2) Returns an error, because 5 and -2 have different signs (#NUM!)

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