You can merge (combine) rows from one table into another just by pasting them in the first empty cells below the target table—the table grows in size to include the new rows. And if the rows in both tables match up, you can merge columns from one table with another by pasting them in the first empty cells to the right of the table—again, the table grows, this time to include the new columns.
Merging rows is pretty straightforward, but merging columns can be tricky if the rows of one table don't always line up with the rows in the other table. By using VLOOKUP, you can avoid some of the alignment problems.
Merge two tables by using the VLOOKUP function
In the example shown below, we've changed the names of the two tables to "Blue" and "Orange." In the Blue table, each row is a line item for an order. So, Order ID 20050 has two items, Order ID 20051 has one item, Order ID 20052 has three items, and so on. We want to merge the Sales ID and Region columns with the Blue table, based on matching values in the Order ID columns of the Orange table.
But Order ID values are repeated in the Blue table, whereas the Order ID values in the Orange table are unique. If we simply copied and pasted the data from the Orange table, the Sales ID and Region values for the second line item of order 20050 would be off by one row, which would immediately throw the rest of the values in those new columns in the Blue table off.
If you want to follow along, here's the data for the Blue table, which you can copy into a blank worksheet. After you paste it into the worksheet, press Ctrl+T to turn it into a table, and then rename the table Blue.
Order ID 
Sale Date 
Product ID 
20050 
2/2/14 
C6077B 
20050 
2/2/14 
C9250LB 
20051 
2/2/14 
M115A 
20052 
2/3/14 
A760G 
20052 
2/3/14 
E3331 
20052 
2/3/14 
SP1447 
20053 
2/3/14 
L88M 
20054 
2/4/14 
S1018MM 
20055 
2/5/14 
C6077B 
20056 
2/6/14 
E3331 
20056 
2/6/14 
D534X 
And here's the data for the Orange table; copy it into the same worksheet. After you paste it into the worksheet, press Ctrl+T to turn it into a table, and then rename the table Orange.
Order ID 
Sales ID 
Region 
20050 
447 
West 
20051 
398 
South 
20052 
1006 
North 
20053 
447 
West 
20054 
885 
East 
20055 
398 
South 
20056 
644 
East 
20057 
1270 
East 
20058 
885 
East 
We need to make sure the Sales ID and Region values for each order get lined up with each order's unique line item. To do this, we'll paste the table headings Sales ID and Region into the cells to the right of the Blue table, and use VLOOKUP formulas to get the right values from the Sales ID and Region columns of the Orange table. Here's how:

Copy the headings Sales ID and Region in the Orange table (just those two cells).

Paste the headings into the cell just to the right of the Product ID heading of the Blue table.
Now, the Blue table is five columns wide, including the new Sales ID and Region columns.

In the Blue table, in the first cell beneath Sales ID, start writing this formula:
=VLOOKUP(

In the Blue table, pick the first cell in the Order ID column, 20050.
The partially completed formula looks like this:
The [@[Order ID]] part means "get the value in this same row from the Order ID column."

Type a comma, and select the entire Orange table with your mouse so that "Orange[#All]" is added to the formula.

Type another comma, 2, another comma, and 0—like this: ,2,0

Press Enter, and the completed formula looks like this:
The Orange[#All] part means "look in all the cells in the Orange table." The 2 means "get the value from the second column," and the 0 means "return the value only if there's an exact match."
Notice that Excel filled the cells down in that column, using the VLOOKUP formula.

Return to step 3, but this time start writing the same formula in the first cell beneath Region.

In step 6, replace 2 with 3, so the completed formula looks like this:
There's just one difference between this formula and the first formula—the first gets values from column 2 of the Orange table, and the second gets them from column 3.
Now you'll see values in every cell of the new columns in the Blue table. They contain VLOOKUP formulas, but they'll show the values. You'll want to convert the VLOOKUP formulas in those cells to their actual values.

Select all the value cells in the Sales ID column, and press Ctrl+C to copy them.

Click Home > arrow below Paste.

In the Paste gallery, click Paste Values.

Select all the value cells in the Region column, copy them, and repeat steps 10 and 11.
Now the VLOOKUP formulas in the two columns have been replaced with the values.
More about tables and VLOOKUP
Resize a table by adding rows and columns