Data Model specification and limits

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A data model is embedded data inside a workbook that powers data visualizations such as PivotTable, PivotChart, and Power View reports. This article documents the maximum and configurable limits for Excel workbooks that contain data models.

File size limits

Workbooks that contain a data model and data visualizations are often very large, sometimes exceeding the file size limits imposed by SharePoint Online or Office Online in Office 365.

The following table states the maximum limits of memory storage and file size for workbooks in Excel and on different platforms. For tips on how to reduce model size, see Create a memory-efficient Data Model using Excel 2013 and the Power Pivot add-in.

Consider also running the Workbook Size Optimizer. It analyzes your Excel workbook and if possible, compresses it further. Download the Workbook Size Optimizer.

Product or platform

Maximum Limit

Excel 2013

32-bit environment is subject to 2 gigabytes (GB) of virtual address space, shared by Excel, the workbook, and add-ins that run in the same process. A data model’s share of the address space might run up to 500 – 700 megabytes (MB), but could be less if other data models and add-ins are loaded.

64-bit environment imposes no hard limits on file size. Workbook size is limited only by available memory and system resources.

SharePoint Server 2013 1

Maximum file size for uploading to a document library:

  • 50 megabytes (MB) default

  • 2 gigabytes (GB) maximum 2

Maximum file size for rendering a workbook in Excel Services:

  • 10 megabytes (MB)  default

  • 2 gigabytes (GB)  maximum 2

Excel Online in Office 365 3

250 megabytes (MB) total file size limit. Core worksheet contents (everything not in the Data Model) size limits according to file size limits for workbooks in SharePoint Online.

1 On SharePoint Server, notice that the defaults that are much lower than the maximum allowed. Ask your SharePoint administrator about raising file size limits if your file is too big to upload or render. More information about Software boundaries and limits for SharePoint Server 2013.

2 Maximum Upload Size must be configured for each web application by a SharePoint administrator. Maximum Workbook Size must be configured in Excel Services by a service administrator. More information for administrators can be found in Configure Maximum File Upload Size on TechNet.

3 Limits in Office 365 are not configurable, but can change over time. Check the Office 365 for Enterprise Service Descriptions for the latest information. You can also see SharePoint Online: software boundaries and limits.

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Other limits

The following table specifies the maximum sizes and numbers of various objects defined in a Data Model.


Maximum Limit

Characters in a table or column name

100 characters

Number of tables in a model

2,147,483,647 bytes

Number of columns and calculated columns in a table

2,147,483,647 bytes

Concurrent requests per workbook


Number of connections


Number of distinct values in a column


Number of rows in a table


String length

536,870,912 bytes (512 MB), equivalent to 268,435,456 Unicode characters (256 mega characters)

Exceptions to the string limit apply to the following functions, where strings are limited to 2,097,152 Unicode characters:

  • CONCATENATE and infix concatenation operator



  • FIND


  • LEFT

  • LEN


  • MID


  • REPT, restriction applies to the input parameter and the result



  • SUBSTITUTE, restriction applies to the input parameter and the result


  • TRIM


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Related links

Create a memory-efficient Data Model using Excel 2013 and the Power Pivot add-in

Workbook Size Optimizer download

Power Pivot: Powerful data analysis and data modeling in Excel

Applies To: Excel 2016 Preview, Excel 2013

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